Explorez Digest

Bosnie-Herzégovine

Communication

20ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 61% (2011)   In 2011, 61% of the population aged 17-64 in Bosnia and Herzegovina had access to and used the Internet. The Communications Regulatory Agency estimated that there were 2,113,100 Internet users in 2011, increased from 2 million in 2010, and recent estimates suggest that the number of Internet users...
Access and Internet use: ()
20ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 61% (2011)
 
In 2011, 61% of the population aged 17-64 in Bosnia and Herzegovina had access to and used the Internet. The Communications Regulatory Agency estimated that there were 2,113,100 Internet users in 2011, increased from 2 million in 2010, and recent estimates suggest that the number of Internet users has continued to grow in the years since 2011. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result is slightly greater than the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 61.4%. 
 
Access to Internet is possible in nearly all cities, and statistics indicate xDSL subscriptions and cable Internet access were the dominant forms of access in 2011 (48.1% and 23.1% of the total number of Internet subscribers). While access is available across the country, the choice of multiple providers is available in bigger cities, while in smaller towns competition is usually limited to five service providers. 
 
The development of information technologies, and in particular the Internet, is significantly transforming the way people access, create, produce and disseminate cultural content and ideas, influencing people’s opportunities to access and participate in cultural life. The Republika Srpska has prioritized the development of information programmes to provide fast technology services and the formation of databases, and has included it in their Strategy for Development of Culture in the Republic of Srpska. Country-wide, an example of a successful database is the COBISS program that includes nearly all public, school and faculty libraries in a unique network, increasing access to content nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 

DIVERSITY OF DISTRIBUTED FILMS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 3.6% (2010)    In 2010, approximately 3.6% of all State-wide distributed films were of domestic origin, including co-productions. 168 films were distributed nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which 162 were foreign, 1 was a co-production, and 5 were domestically...
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DIVERSITY OF DISTRIBUTED FILMS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 3.6% (2010) 
 
In 2010, approximately 3.6% of all State-wide distributed films were of domestic origin, including co-productions. 168 films were distributed nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which 162 were foreign, 1 was a co-production, and 5 were domestically produced. The overwhelming majority of distributed films were of foreign origin, 96.4%.
 
This result may reflect very low production capacities of the domestic film industry, or low levels of public support offered to local creators for the development and distribution of domestic content and the local cultural industries. Obstacles that may be contributing to low production include a lack of infrastructure and material support to production.  Inadequate infrastructure is a major contributing factor to limited distribution, screening, and archiving capacities. Cinemas and facilities were largely destroyed during the war in the 1990s; today 6 functioning cinemas are available in only six large cities, and only two film archives continue to pursue their work with limited financial support from authorities. According to the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, solid infrastructure and the coherent organization of the production, distribution and screening of films is necessary for the development of cinematography nation-wide. 
 
Nevertheless, the film industry is already a significant contributor to the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the indicators of the Economy dimension, 1.8% of employed persons work in motion picture activities, and the contribution of these activities to GDP is nearly 1%. Furthermore, it is significant to note that the ratio of ticket sales for domestic films (16.7% : 83.3%) compared to foreign films is much higher than the ratio of domestic to foreign films distributed (3.6% : 96.4%), indicating a genuine public demand and potential for the growth of the domestic market.
 
Cinematography has been steadily developing in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina thanks to a rich film tradition and investment in the education of young experts, as illustrated by the indicators of the Education Dimension. The quality of domestic productions has earned recognition in the form of multiple prestigious international prizes including Best Script at the Cannes Film Festival (2001), Best Foreign Film at the American Academy Awards (2002, 2006), and the Golden Bear the Berlin International Film Festival (2006), to name but a few. In addition to the domestic market, such international recognition also shows the export potential of the industry. 

 

19FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 52/100 (2012)   The freedom of expression, the freedom of the media and the free flow of information are protected by law and guaranteed in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 2 and Annex).   Bosnia and Herzegovina’s score of 52/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based...
Freedom of expression: ()
19FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 52/100 (2012)
 
The freedom of expression, the freedom of the media and the free flow of information are protected by law and guaranteed in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 2 and Annex).
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s score of 52/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘partly free.’ This score illustrates the efforts made by the authorities to ensure an enabling environment for freed media to operate and freedom of expression to be respected and promoted. Through the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, these freedoms are the building blocks for the development of open and participatory societies as well as key enablers for creativity and cultural diversity. 
 
An independent body, the Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA), oversees the work of the media and issues broadcasting licenses, as stipulated by the Law on Communication (Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, no. 31/03). The CRA operates at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina in accordance with general principles of legality, objectivity, transparency and non-discrimination and is entirely independent in the decision-making process. Although often exposed to political pressure, the agency is financially independent and its licensing decisions are generally seen as fair and impartial. 
 
Nevertheless, key improvements remain in the current political and legal environments. While State legislation guarantees the freedom of expression, politicians have been reported to continue to exert considerable pressure on journalists, and media outlets continue to have ties with political parties. In spite of libel being officially decriminalized in 2003, journalists can still face civil penalties over libel complaints, and the burden of proof in such cases is placed on defendants. The Free Media Helpline, a program run by the Bosnia and Herzegovina Journalists’ Association, recorded 39 violations of journalists’ rights between January 1 and September 10, 2012, and noted an increase in threats and pressure by politicians since 2011. While legislation on the freedom of information is in place, certain government bodies continue to not observe the law, hindering access and making the process to obtain official data cumbersome. 


Economy

1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 5.72% (2011)   In 2011, cultural activities contributed to 5.72% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which indicates that culture is responsible for an important part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the...
Contribution of cultural activities to GDP: ()
1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 5.72% (2011)
 
In 2011, cultural activities contributed to 5.72% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which indicates that culture is responsible for an important part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods of its citizens. 32% of this contribution can be attributed to central cultural activities and 68% can be attributed to equipment/supporting activities. 
 
While already indicating a vibrant sector, culture’s contribution to GDP is underestimated by this indicator as it only takes into consideration private and formal cultural activities and excludes the indirect and induced impacts of the culture sector. Nevertheless, this indicator offers valuable new information on the profits generated by the culture sector. Although the largest contribution (64%) to GDP is made by wired and wireless telecommunications activities, falling under the category of equipment/supporting activities, 1.83% of GDP can be attributed to central cultural activities alone. The central activities that contributed the most to Bosnia and Herzegovina’s GDP include engineering, television programming and broadcasting activities, architectural activities, advertising, and the publishing of newspapers. Given the weakened State economy in the post-war context, the strength of the sector’s impact on GDP is remarkable.
 
The Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) states, “In the post-war period in our country, with a large number of industrial potential destroyed, it is the cultural industries that can have a significant impact on overall development. It is a field of activity which can provide many jobs and achieve social profit,” and identifies culture and the cultural industries as an “area of investment and personal development.” However, no concrete measures have yet been taken to ensure the prioritization of culture for economic development or to permit regularly tracing the trade flows of cultural products and services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Regularly collected data could increase the visibility of the sector’s significance as well as assist in monitoring the defined objectives outlined in policies. 

 

2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 4.7% (2011)   In 2011, 4.7% of the employed population in Bosnia and Herzegovina worked in cultural establishments(28,983 people). 65% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 35% held occupations in equipment/supporting activities.    Though this result already...
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2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 4.7% (2011)
 
In 2011, 4.7% of the employed population in Bosnia and Herzegovina worked in cultural establishments(28,983 people). 65% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 35% held occupations in equipment/supporting activities. 
 
Though this result already emphasizes culture’s important role as an employer in the country, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated by this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure does not cover cultural occupations performed in non-cultural establishments or induced occupations with a strong link to culture. 
 
When cross-analyzing this indicator with the results for the Contribution of Cultural Activities to GDP, it is noted that the same sub-sectors with the highest added value also employ the largest number of people. Paradoxically, the ratio of the contribution of central to equipment/supporting activities is reversed:  32:68 for the Contribution of Cultural Activities to GDP versus 65:35 for Cultural Employment. 
 
Cultural employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not as strong as in the pre-war period. As a result of the destruction in the 1990s, there was a large migration of the population, destruction of cultural resources, as well as the outflow of skilled staff. Nevertheless, the result of 4.7%shows culture’s steadfast role as a significant employer, especially for a creative workforce. In April 2013, the Labour and Employment Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina estimated that 648,656 individuals had paid employment while 549,567 were unemployed. Given this strained economic situation, the culture sector’s steady source of employment is all the more significant. To further increase employment, the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) suggests the creation of prerequisites and standards as part of appropriate strategies for job creation in the culture sector.

 

3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 2.43% (2007)   In Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2.43% of average monthly household expenditures were devoted to cultural goods and services in the year 2007 (37.41 BAM or 19.13 EUR). 77% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 23% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The...
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3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 2.43% (2007)
 
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2.43% of average monthly household expenditures were devoted to cultural goods and services in the year 2007 (37.41 BAM or 19.13 EUR). 77% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 23% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The consumption of books was responsible for the largest share of central goods and services consumed, and the repair of audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment was responsible for the largest share of equipment/supporting goods and services.
 
This result suggests a significant demand for cultural goods, though significant variations in the consumption of cultural goods and services can be noted across the different entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. While residents of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spent 42.04 BAM on cultural goods and services, the Republika Srpska and Brčko District spent 30.09 BAM and 22.74 BAM respectively. Cross-analyzing these results with the indicators of the Governance dimension suggests that the notably lower levels of consumption of the residents of the Brčko District may in part be contributed to a lack of cultural infrastructures. 
 
Though already significant, this final result of 2.43% is a sub-estimation of the total actual consumption of households. It does not account for the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). For example, it does not include museum and public library services and free public cultural events. 
 
>> While the Economy indicators suggest that there is a non-negligible demand for the consumption of cultural goods, services and activities, they also indicate that this result reflecting the demand side of the domestic market is significantly less than the final results that measure the production side (GDP and employment). Combined, this may in part reflect consumption at insignificant prices, or alternatively it may suggest domestic production does not target domestic consumption of cultural goods and services, instead targeting a foreign audience. More research regarding cultural participation practices is necessary to understand more about the potential of the domestic market.

Education

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.99/1 (2005)   The 1995 Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 3) and the 2003 Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education declare all citizens’ right to an education. Within this context, the result of 0.99/1 reflects the success of authorities in guaranteeing this fundamental cultural...
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4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.99/1 (2005)
 
The 1995 Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 3) and the 2003 Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education declare all citizens’ right to an education. Within this context, the result of 0.99/1 reflects the success of authorities in guaranteeing this fundamental cultural right in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, primary education is obligatory and free of charge, while secondary and tertiary education is available to all with a required entry fee. This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has 11.4 years of schooling, which is superior to the targeted 10 years. In addition, only a very small minority of 1% of the target population lives in education deprivation, having less than 4 years of schooling. This result shows that despite Bosnia and Herzegovina’s recent strife, public authorities’ efforts have been overwhelmingly successful in assuring that citizens enjoy the right to an education, and participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills throughout school, as well as benefit from the personal and social empowerment of learning.

 

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 85% (2009)   The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995) states that the enjoyment of rights and freedoms shall be secured to all persons without discrimination on any grounds, including language (Article 2). According to the Constitutions of the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and...
Multilingual Education: ()
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 85% (2009)
 
The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995) states that the enjoyment of rights and freedoms shall be secured to all persons without discrimination on any grounds, including language (Article 2). According to the Constitutions of the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there are three official languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian (Article 7 and Amendment XXIX). In addition, there are two official scripts: Cyrillic and Latin. 
 
According to the 2009 official curriculums of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republika Srpska, and the Brčko District, an average of 44% of the required time dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school (grades 10-11) is to be dedicated to the teaching of one of the three official languages. The remaining 56% of the time is to be dedicated to the teaching of international languages; 32% is to be dedicated to teaching a first international language, and 24% to a second. These results indicate that an average of 85% of the total time dedicated to teaching languages State-wide is spent promoting multilingualism in the first two years of secondary school and that linguistic diversity is particularly encouraged regarding the three official languages and openness to international languages.
 
Primary and secondary school curricula require one of the three official languages to be taught in each grade. The first international language is introduced in the third grade of primary school and the second in the sixth. English, French, and German are favored options, while Spanish, Italian and Turkish have recently been introduced. The average ratio of time dedicated to official languages versus international languages in primary schooling is 62:38.
 
These figures show efforts to encourage the learning of official languages, strengthening identity, while at the same time enhancing the valorization of cultural diversity through the teaching of international languages.  However, in spite of these promising results, none of the 17 minority languages are part of the required curriculums.Although the Constitutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska state that other languages and alphabets may be used to teach in regions inhabited by groups speaking minority languages (Amendment XXIX and Article 7), the representation of such local and regional languages in the formal education system remains 0%. Introducing these languages into official school curriculums would improve minorities’ education and working opportunities, and would enhance cross-cultural understanding amongst the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 6.45% (2009)   In Bosnia and Herzegovina, an average of 6.45% of all instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school are to be dedicated to arts education, reflecting a medium level of priority given to the arts and culture. The Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and...
Arts Education: ()
6 ARTS EDUCATION: 6.45% (2009)
 
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, an average of 6.45% of all instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school are to be dedicated to arts education, reflecting a medium level of priority given to the arts and culture. The Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina prescribes “stimulating arts and creative content in the educational system;” one of the goals is to integrate cultural programmes in all levels of education by 2014 and to require liberal artists to work with pupils and students (Indicator 4.3.1). Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result reflects the successful integration of culture in secondary education. The sub-disciplines of the arts that are incorporated in the official school curricula are music and painting. Other sub-disciplines are offered as elective subjects, such as photography, drama, and dance. 
 
Nevertheless, while this result for secondary education is above the average across all test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 4.84%, a gap in the priority given to arts education can be noted for secondary schooling at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On average, 10.90% of all educational hours are to be dedicated to arts education during primary schooling. This is nearly twice what is required during secondary education. Moreover, when looking at the following indicator on tertiary and training programmes that are offered in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the coverage is nearly complete. Such a gap may inhibit realizing the culture sector’s full potential as an employer by preventing students from developing an interest in a professional career in the sector during key formative years.

 

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.8/1 (2010)   Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.8/1 indicates that the Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. Indeed, the coverage of public and government-dependent private...
Professional Training in the culture sector: ()
7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.8/1 (2010)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.8/1 indicates that the Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. Indeed, the coverage of public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is rather comprehensive in Bosnia and Herzegovina, offering various types of courses and permitting cultural professionals to receive the necessary training to pursue a career in the culture sector.
 
Six of the eight public government-funded universities in the country offer programmes in the field of culture, and one of the goals of the Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina is to increase the number of students in cultural fields (Indicator 4.3.1). Approximately 320 students are enrolled in higher education cultural programmes each year, while only 170 graduate. Although the coverage of professional training is rather satisfactory, enrolment in these programmes represents only 0.3% of the 107,609 students enrolled at the 40 public and private higher education institutions in the year 2010/2011.
 
The fields most represented are music, the fine arts and film, the former two of which have various programmes on offer at five universities, and the latter at four. Though employment in the field of architecture is rather high as demonstrated by the Economy dimension indicators, architecture is only offered by two universities: the University of Banja Luka and the University of Sarajevo. Relative to heritage, archaeology is only available at the University of Mostar. 
 
One notable gap exists in both the coverage of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and tertiary education in culture; the field of Cultural Management is not represented in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s educational system. Transforming artistic and creative capacities into economically viable activities, goods and services and the effective management of cultural businesses requires considering culture-specific aspects of the sector. A lack of training in cultural management may hinder the emergence of a dynamic cultural class and the development of competitive cultural enterprises.

Gender-Equality

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)   The Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) conforms to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination and is the most important instrument for the development of awareness of gender issues and the consideration...
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()
17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)
 
The Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) conforms to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination and is the most important instrument for the development of awareness of gender issues and the consideration of gender in the development of public policies and regulations. However, while gender legislation exists, a series of alternative indicators reveal persisting gaps where additional investment is needed to improve gender equality outputs.
 
While little significant divergence can be noted in the areas of gender equity legislation and education, more prominent gaps can be seen regarding labour force and political participation. Although 56.7% of men are either employed or actively searching for work, only 33.2% of women participate in the labour force. Additionally, the most significant gap is observed regarding the outcomes of political participation where a major imbalance persists, in spite of a quota system in favor of women’s participation being in place. In 2012, women only represented 21% of parliamentarians. In 2010, the Gender Equality Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in cooperation with Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina, conducted a study on the depiction of women candidates in the media. The results of the study indicated substantial marginalization of female politicians during election periods and that women in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still not given equal opportunities to exercise their rights to participate in political and public life. Furthermore, once part of the public sector, women continue to confront obstacles in climbing the ladder of hierarchy. A priority of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) is to “promote gender equality and eliminate sex discrimination phenomena and inequality in the field of culture and, on that basis, improving the quality of education, as well as proper representation of both genders at all levels of society and governance.”  Nevertheless, according to the Administrative Database in the Field of Cultural Policy, even amongst individuals actively employed by public cultural institutions, women are underrepresented in positions of leadership. Although employment of the public cultural sector as a whole favors females (55%), in contrast to the ratio of average labour force participation rates for men and women, men continue to hold 65% of all positions of authority.
 
In Conclusion, while Bosnia and Herzegovina has made progress in select areas of gender equality, progress remains to be achieved in others. Policies require people, and a further look at the subjective indicator below suggests that deep-set cultural values and perceptions may be behind the most persistent gaps in outputs. Resistance due to embedded cultural values can undermine the feasibility of objectives and the sustainability of performance outcomes.
 

 

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)

  The Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) conforms to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination and is the most important instrument for the development of awareness of gender issues and the...
Gender equality objectives outputs: ()

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)

 
The Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) conforms to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination and is the most important instrument for the development of awareness of gender issues and the consideration of gender in the development of public policies and regulations. However, while gender legislation exists, a series of alternative indicators reveal persisting gaps where additional investment is needed to improve gender equality outputs.
 
While little significant divergence can be noted in the areas of gender equity legislation and education, more prominent gaps can be seen regarding labour force and political participation. Although 56.7% of men are either employed or actively searching for work, only 33.2% of women participate in the labour force. Additionally, the most significant gap is observed regarding the outcomes of political participation where a major imbalance persists, in spite of a quota system in favor of women’s participation being in place. In 2012, women only represented 21% of parliamentarians. In 2010, the Gender Equality Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in cooperation with Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina, conducted a study on the depiction of women candidates in the media. The results of the study indicated substantial marginalization of female politicians during election periods and that women in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still not given equal opportunities to exercise their rights to participate in political and public life. Furthermore, once part of the public sector, women continue to confront obstacles in climbing the ladder of hierarchy. A priority of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) is to “promote gender equality and eliminate sex discrimination phenomena and inequality in the field of culture and, on that basis, improving the quality of education, as well as proper representation of both genders at all levels of society and governance.”  Nevertheless, according to the Administrative Database in the Field of Cultural Policy, even amongst individuals actively employed by public cultural institutions, women are underrepresented in positions of leadership. Although employment of the public cultural sector as a whole favors females (55%), in contrast to the ratio of average labour force participation rates for men and women, men continue to hold 65% of all positions of authority.
 
In Conclusion, while Bosnia and Herzegovina has made progress in select areas of gender equality, progress remains to be achieved in others. Policies require people, and a further look at the subjective indicator below suggests that deep-set cultural values and perceptions may be behind the most persistent gaps in outputs. Resistance due to embedded cultural values can undermine the feasibility of objectives and the sustainability of performance outcomes.

 

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 65.8% (2001)   In 2001, 65.8% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicators for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The...
Perception of gender equality: ()
18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 65.8% (2001)
 
In 2001, 65.8% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicators for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that nearly two-thirds of the population view gender as a positive factor for development. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result is slightly greater than the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 61.4%. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, thus this result suggests social and cultural norms that largely support gender equality. 
 
However, the perception of gender equality varied according to the domain of the question asked. When asked if “University is more important for a boy than for a girl,” 82.4% of the population responded no, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality is more likely to be perceived as positive for development. When asked if “Men make better political leaders than woman,” 67.2% of respondents did not agree. In response to the question “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women,” only 47.7% of respondents did not agree. The higher esteem for women’s education and the lower appreciation for gender equality in labour force participation are consistent with the gaps in objective outputs observed. However, the perceptions of two-thirds of the population who favorably perceive women in politics are not reflected by the low percentage of women in parliament.
 
>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals that while some attitudes and values are reflected in persisting gaps in objective outputs, the majority’s positive perception of women in politics is not translated into tangible outcomes. These results suggest a need for greater advocacy efforts targeting attitudes in regards to key domains like employment, while more appropriate measures, programmes and investments are needed to realize objective gender equality in politics and the public sector, as well as to effectively implement the recommendations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
 

 

18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 65.8% (2001)   In 2001, 65.8% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicators for this dimension- employment, political participation and...
Perception of gender equality: ()
18 PERCEPTION OF GENDER EQUALITY: 65.8% (2001)
 
In 2001, 65.8% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina positively perceived gender as a factor for development, according to their responses to questions regarding three key domains that parallel the objective indicators for this dimension- employment, political participation and education. The final result is a composite indicator, which suggests that nearly two-thirds of the population view gender as a positive factor for development. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result is slightly greater than the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 61.4%. Individuals’ perceptions on gender equality are strongly influenced by cultural practices and norms, thus this result suggests social and cultural norms that largely support gender equality. 
 
However, the perception of gender equality varied according to the domain of the question asked. When asked if “University is more important for a boy than for a girl,” 82.4% of the population responded no, suggesting that education is a domain in which gender equality is more likely to be perceived as positive for development. When asked if “Men make better political leaders than woman,” 67.2% of respondents did not agree. In response to the question “When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women,” only 47.7% of respondents did not agree. The higher esteem for women’s education and the lower appreciation for gender equality in labour force participation are consistent with the gaps in objective outputs observed. However, the perceptions of two-thirds of the population who favorably perceive women in politics are not reflected by the low percentage of women in parliament.
 
>> This cross-analysis of the subjective and objective indicators reveals that while some attitudes and values are reflected in persisting gaps in objective outputs, the majority’s positive perception of women in politics is not translated into tangible outcomes. These results suggest a need for greater advocacy efforts targeting attitudes in regards to key domains like employment, while more appropriate measures, programmes and investments are needed to realize objective gender equality in politics and the public sector, as well as to effectively implement the recommendations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

Governance

10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.66/1 (2012)    Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result is 0.66/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of the population. All levels of the government provide cultural services through...
Distribution of cultural infrastructures: ()
10 DISTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURES: 0.66/1 (2012) 
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result is 0.66/1, 1 representing the situation in which selected infrastructure is equally distributed amongst regions according to the relative size of the population. All levels of the government provide cultural services through publicly funded cultural institutions. There are 264 public cultural institutions with more than 2800 employees. The score of 0.66/1 thus reflects that there are many cultural facilities available across all administrative divisions directly below State level in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but that some inequality persists regarding access to Museums, Exhibition Venues Dedicated to the Performing Arts, Libraries and Media Resource Centers.
 
When looking at the figures for the three different categories of infrastructures, Bosnia and Herzegovina scores 0.56/1 for Museums, 0.75/1 for Exhibition Venues and 0.66/1 for Libraries. This suggests that the most equal distribution of access exists for Exhibition Venues, and that the most unequal distribution exists for Museums, the Brčko District not having any such facilities. Exhibition Venues take the form of cultural centres in Bosnia and Herzegovina and serve many functions promoting community culture, language and heritage by exhibiting elements of art and culture and organizing festivals, film projections and theatrical performances. Increasing equality of access to cultural infrastructure could enhance wellbeing in Bosnia and Herzegovina by both providing more opportunities to take part in cultural and creative activities which benefit the country economically through the production and consumption of cultural goods and services, and by nurturing an appreciation for the diverse cultures of the country through participation. This is a crucial and common challenge among all the countries that have implemented the CDIS until now as the average score for this indicator is only 0.43/1.

 

11CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.85/1 (2012)   The final result of 0.85/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such...
Civil Society participation in cultural Governance: ()
11CIVIL SOCIETY PARTICIPATION IN CULTURAL GOVERNANCE: 0.85/1 (2012)
 
The final result of 0.85/1 indicates that many opportunities exist for dialogue and representation of both cultural professionals and minorities in regards to the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them. Such opportunities for participation in cultural governance exist at the State as well as decentralized levels.
 
To facilitate the participation of cultural professionals in governance, there are several institutional mechanisms and organic structures that operate at the State, entity, canton, and municipal levels. As part of the legislative structures, all levels of government in Bosnia and Herzegovina have commissions for culture that are formed within parliaments and assemblies, consisting of 5 to 10 members, one-third of which are cultural professionals acting as experts. 
As part of the respective executive authorities of each level of government, all have councils for culture that act as advisory bodies to the Ministry responsible for culture or to municipale assemblies. These councils are formed by the government/municipal mayor following a proposal of the relevant Ministry/municipality. The councils likewise have 5 to 10 members and one-third are cultural professionals.
 
Though less formalized and ad hoc in nature, means to facilitate the punctual participation of minorities in cultural governance also exist. For example, during the development of the Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, representatives of minorities were consulted and participated in sessions held in 2011, and their proposals were incorporated into the document. Efforts to regularize such sessions at all levels of government would further ensure the continued participation of minorities in the formulation and implementation of cultural policies, measures and programmes that concern them.

 

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR): 1.31% (2009)   In 2009, the total share of government expenditures on culture State-wide was 1.31%. This accounts for an allocation of 29.14 BAM (14.90 EUR) per capita for culture and highlights the degree of the government’s financial commitment to meet culture sector...
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GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR): 1.31% (2009)
 
In 2009, the total share of government expenditures on culture State-wide was 1.31%. This accounts for an allocation of 29.14 BAM (14.90 EUR) per capita for culture and highlights the degree of the government’s financial commitment to meet culture sector objectives iterated in laws and policies at all levels of decentralization.
 
Like jurisdiction over cultural matters, the financing of culture in Bosnia and Herzegovina depends on several government levels. As culture - and thus the public financing thereof - is first and foremost the responsibility of the entities, the bulk of public funding for culture is provided by the Republika Srpska, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the cantons of the Federation, as well as by the Brčko District. The State provides only a small share of the total support for culture, an equivalent of 2.27 BAM per capita in 2009, which assists in co-financing programmes and projects significant for the State and international cooperation. The percentage of public expenditures for culture in the Brčko District was 0.93%.  At the entity level, the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina allocated 1.43% and 1.38% of their budgets respectively. These figures indicate that both entities and the Brčko District allocated a consistent 27 BAM per capita for culture. Variations at the canton-level are more extreme from 0.18% of total public expenditures in the Canton Bosnian Podrinie to 3.71% in the Canton Sarajevo. 
 
In comparison to other neighbouring European countries, according to the Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends of the Council of Europe, Bosnia and Herzegovina falls in the lower-middle of the spectrum as the total expenditures on culture per capita are significantly lower than some neighbouring countries such as Slovenia (134.60 EUR), yet higher than others such as Albania (5.87 EUR).

 

9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 1/1 (2012)   The final result of 1/1 reflects that Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by...
Policy and institutional framework for culture: ()
9 POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 1/1 (2012)
 
The final result of 1/1 reflects that Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have taken great efforts to create a comprehensive policy and institutional framework to promote the culture sector as part of development, by establishing targeted policies and mechanisms and by having an adequate political and administrative system to implement the legal instruments seen above.  
 
In line with the European principles of de-etatization, decentralization, and democratization as stated in the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008), several Ministries responsible for culture exist at all levels of the government and have allocated budgets. At the State level, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Sector for Science and Culture has a mandate to perform activities and tasks that are in jurisdiction of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as tasks related to the coordination and harmonization of activities and plans of entity authorities. Most competences over culture fall under entity jurisdiction, each entity having two separate Ministries responsible for select cultural issues as well as 10 canton-level Ministries in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Entities and cantons are responsible for the initiation and development of legislation and strategies in the area of culture; regulation and organization of cultural services provision via their cultural institutions; distribution of public funds for programmes and projects; the support of cultural cooperation programmes; and the maintenance of citizen associations. To this aim they perform administrative and professional tasks in the areas of heritage protection, museums, archives, libraries, publishing, theatre, music, fine arts, film, etc. In addition to these key State and entity-level actors, a Department of the Brčko District also has competences in the area of culture.
 
Multiple plans and strategies demonstrate the level of commitment to promoting the culture sector across government levels.  The State-level Council of Minister has adopted the Strategy for Cultural Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008), as well as its Action Plan (2011). The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a Development Strategy and Action Plan for the period 2010—2020, which specifies several goals and activities specific to culture; and for the first time, the Ministry in charge of culture has been included in drafting the new Development Strategy for the Republic Srpska for the period 2010—2015. 
 
However, in spite of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s perfect score and extensive cultural policy and institutional framework, enhancement of the framework for improved efficiency and effectiveness can still be achieved. Due to the complex structure of jurisdiction, a high degree of cooperation is required and the mechanisms to realize such cooperation country-wide can still evolve. In addition, to facilitate nation-wide effectiveness and ensure adequate distribution of funding and targeted cultural programmes, improvements can be made in data collection, data sharing and harmonization of information systems across government levels. 

 

8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.94/1 (2012)   Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.94/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture when looking at the country as a whole and that many efforts have been made to ratify key international legal instruments affecting...
Standard-setting framework for culture: ()
8 STANDARD-SETTING FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURE: 0.94/1 (2012)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.94/1 indicates that there is already a significant standard-setting framework for culture when looking at the country as a whole and that many efforts have been made to ratify key international legal instruments affecting cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity, as well as to establish a framework to recognize and implement these obligations. 
 
Few complete absences can be noted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The legal framework that governs cultural legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina is quite complex and when analyzed further, select inconsistencies and gaps can be noted across the different levels of government. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a sovereign State with a highly decentralized political and administrative structure. All functions and powers not explicitly stated as those of the State in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, are those of the entities- the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska. In such cases, including all matters concerning culture, the State has only a coordinating role. In addition, further decentralization of powers occurs within the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, at the level of cantons. Finally, the Brčko District is a separate condominium administrative and territorial unit, jointly owned by both entities, which falls under State level jurisdiction.
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.97/1 at the international level. International affairs are in the realm of the powers of the State, and a result of 0.97/1 shows the country’s high level of commitment to cultural development, cultural rights and cultural diversity.Bosnia and Herzegovina has ratified all recommended conventions, declarations and recommendations, with the exception of the 2003 UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Promotion and Use of Multilingualism and Universal Access to Cyberspace.
 
Given the complex legislative structure, a few more inconsistencies and gaps can be noted at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but a total score of 0.93/1 indicates that a great deal of effort has been made at all levels of government to implement many of the international obligations that Bosnia and Herzegovina has committed to. Select areas for improvement remain. No legislation in favor of creating a propitious and diversified environment for the development of local cultural industries exists at any government level, and a ‘framework law’ for culture only exists in 4 of the 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nevertheless, the Republika Srpska is currently in the process of drafting a Law on Culture, which will harmonize all applicable laws and procedures in the field of culture, as well as establish mechanisms for the financing of culture and enhanced regulation in such areas as the status of artists. Another key omission is the current lack of State-level legislation to implement international commitments regarding the protection of cultural heritage, though a State-level draft of the Law on Cultural Goods is currently being prepared. Measure 2.1.1 of the Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) prescribes “harmonisation of domestic policies on heritage with international standards.” To date, analysis of heritage legislation was conducted in 2011 and submitted to State, entity and canton-level ministries responsible for culture in order to prepare new regulations.

Heritage

22HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.56/1 (2013)   Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.56/1 is an intermediate result regarding the establishment of multidimensional framework for the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability. The degree of commitment and action taken by the authorities of Bosnia and...
Heritage sustainability: ()
22HERITAGE SUSTAINABILITY: 0.56/1 (2013)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.56/1 is an intermediate result regarding the establishment of multidimensional framework for the protection, safeguarding and promotion of heritage sustainability. The degree of commitment and action taken by the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina varies according to the component of the framework. While many public efforts are dedicated to registrations and inscriptions, conservation, valorization and management, and stimulating support; persisting gaps remain regarding knowledge and capacity-building, community involvement, raising awareness and education.  
 
Responsibility for heritage is greatly decentralized in Bosnia and Herzegovina and coverage of public authorities is fragmented. Decision-making processes, as well as the registration of heritage sites is in the jurisdiction of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the Brčko District, while the Ministry of Civil Affairs at the State level has only a coordinative role. The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (CPNM) at the State level receives and decides on requests to designate property as national monuments, due to cultural, historical, religious, or ethical value. The CPNM has a register of cultural heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as do the entity institutes for the protection of heritage/monuments. In all, there are 11 institutes for the protection of cultural heritage, with 151 employees. The entity and cantonal institutes perform some of the most significant professional, technical and administrative tasks in the field of heritage protection. Three additional institutes are exclusively responsible for natural heritage in the Republika Srpska, the Sarajevo Canton, and the Tuzla Canton; and an institute in the Central Bosnia Canton deals with heritage in regards to spatial planning. Cooperation between the various bodies poses many challenges.
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.7/1 for registration and inscriptions, indicating that many efforts have resulted in sub-national, national and international registrations and inscriptions of sites and elements of tangible and intangible heritage. The 714 sites and objects of moveable property that have been registered by the CPNM illustrate these efforts at the State level. In addition, 2 national monuments have received the recognition of being World Heritage, and 20 national monuments have been included on the Council of Europe’s Prioritized Intervention List. In addition, recent efforts have resulted in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina inscribing elements of intangible heritage, demonstrating Bosnia and Herzegovina’s commitment to the 2003 Convention on the Safeguarding on Intangible Heritage as illustrated by the Governance dimension. As a result, the preliminary inventory of Bosnia and Herzegovina is now composed of 19 elements from both entities- the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. One element of intangible heritage has been nominated for the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. However, no databases for stolen cultural property yet exist for either entity or the Brčko District, despite the ratification of the 1970 Convention.
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.51/1 for the protection, safeguarding and management of heritage, indicating that while well-defined policies and measures are in place for the conservation, protection and management of heritage, additional efforts are needed to build capacity and involve communities. Although the Education dimension indicates that higher education courses exist in the field of heritage, in the last 3 years training programmes have only been conducted regarding illicit trafficking and have not addressed increasing the expertise of heritage sites’ management staff, the role of the armed forces in protecting heritage in the case of armed conflict, or the capacities of local communities to be involved in the protection and transmission of heritage. Likewise, in the past 2 years no concrete measures have been taken to involve minorities or indigenous peoples in the protection, conservation, safeguarding or transmission of heritage, or involve them in the fight against illicit trafficking.
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina scored 0.49/1 for the transmission and mobilization of support, which reflects the partial efforts taken to raise awareness of heritage’s value and its threats, as well as efforts to involve all stakeholders. While signage at heritage sites and an awareness-raising programmes are tools in use to alert the population of heritage’s value and the threats it faces, additional measures could be taken, including the development of education programmes in schools, differential pricing at sites, media campaigns, and the establishment of visitor centres at the most visited sites. Similarly, while efforts have already resulted in agreements with tour operators and the involvement of private foundations in heritage advocacy and funding, no concrete measures have been taken in the last 2 years to actively involve the civil society and/or private sector in the protection, conservation and transmission of heritage.

 

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON CULTURAL HERITAGE (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR): 0.40% (2009)   In 2009, 0.40% of total annual government expenditures across all levels of the government were dedicated to the identification, protection, safeguarding, conservation and management of natural, tangible and intangible cultural heritage(30,496,...
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GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON CULTURAL HERITAGE (ADDITIONAL INDICATOR): 0.40% (2009)
 
In 2009, 0.40% of total annual government expenditures across all levels of the government were dedicated to the identification, protection, safeguarding, conservation and management of natural, tangible and intangible cultural heritage(30,496,390.62 BAM or 15,602,723 EUR). Thus, nation-wide 8.85 BAM (4.53 EUR) per capita were spent on heritage, and 30.35% of total expenditures on culture were dedicated to heritage.
 
Nevertheless, the priority given to cultural heritage, as reflected by the percentage of expenditures, varies greatly according to the level of the government. While the State spent 6,112,802 BAM  (78% of total State level expenditures on culture); the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spent 13,884,191.28 BAM (22.6% of total expenditures on culture), the Republika Srpska spent 10,959,306 BAM (34.8%) and the Brčko District spent 36,825.2 BAM (2%). These variations in expenditures are of particular significance given the context of the country and the distribution of responsibilities regarding heritage. A cultural site may be declared as a national monument at the State level but be found within the jurisdiction of an entity ministry for the protection of heritage, which though does not participate in the proclamation process is legally obligated to protect and safeguard the declared heritage sites within their jurisdiction. The Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina proposes the creation of a law on cultural heritage that would provide a coherent system for heritage protection, affirming it as a factor for sustainable social and economic development, and introduce harmonized legal and financial measures for cultural property to encourage their effective maintenance, restoration, reconstruction and rehabilitation State-wide.
 

Social-Participation

14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 77.03% (2001)   In 2001, 77.03% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of...
Tolerance of other cultures: ()
14 TOLERANCE OF OTHER CULTURES: 77.03% (2001)
 
In 2001, 77.03% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina agreed that they do not find people of a different culture as undesirable neighbours. This indicator provides an assessment of the degree of tolerance and openness to diversity, thus providing insight into the levels of interconnectedness within a given society. It is a composite result of respondents’ replies regarding neighbours falling under 3 categories: people of a different race, immigrants/foreign workers, and people of a different religion.
 
One of the distinctive features of Bosnia ad Hervegovina is its cultural diversity. In addition to the three constituent peoples – Croats, Serbs, and Bosnians, 17 national minorities are recognized. Issues of ethnic, religious and cultural heritage often are of critical importance to the political, social and economic development of the country. The result of 77.03% indicates a fairly high level of tolerance towards diversity and that the values, attitudes and convictions of the majority of the population favor the acceptance of other cultures. Slight variations in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s results appear across age groups, with the highest results being recorded for the youngest group aged 15-29 years— 81.23%. These figures fall just below the average final result of the countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 81.97%. 
 
Cross-analysis with the Governance dimension reveals an example of how Bosnia and Herzegovina has demonstrated an appreciation for cultural diversity in policy-making at the State level through the participation of minorities in the development of the Action Plan for the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 

15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 21.9% (2001)    In 2001, 21.9% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina agreed that most people can be trusted.This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Bosnia and Herzegovia, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 21.9%indicates a relatively low...
Interpersonal trust: ()
15 INTERPERSONAL TRUST: 21.9% (2001) 
 
In 2001, 21.9% of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina agreed that most people can be trusted.This indicator assesses the level of trust and sense of solidarity and cooperation in Bosnia and Herzegovia, providing insight into its social capital. A result of 21.9%indicates a relatively low level of trust and solidarity. Variations in the results can be seen across age groups. While 24.9% of people ages 50 and over agree that most people can be trusted, only 22% of those ages 30-49 and 18.8% of those 15-29 agree, which indicates an increasing trend with age. Nurturing interpersonal trust is a common obstacle for countries having implemented the CDIS, as the average for all countries is situated at 19.3%. 
 
Cross-analysis with the other indicators of this dimension suggests that there remains an obstruction to transforming widespread feelings of tolerance and openness into sentiments of trust and solidarity. Through improved access and rates of engagement, enhancing the potential of cultural participation to reinforce feelings of mutual understanding, solidarity and cooperation, merits consideration.

 

16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 5.38/10 (2001)   Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result is 5.38/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 5.38/10 indicates...
Freedom of self-determination: ()
16 FREEDOM OF SELF-DETERMINATION: 5.38/10 (2001)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result is 5.38/10, 10 representing the situation in which individuals believe that there is ‘a great deal of freedom of choice and control’ and 1 being ‘no freedom of choice and control.’ The score of 5.38/10 indicates that the population feels that they have a medium degree of control over their lives and are free to live the life they choose, according to their own values and beliefs. By assessing this freedom, this indicator evaluates the sense of empowerment and enablement of individuals for deciding and orienting their development.
 
While the median response for the population is 5.38 and nearly no variation can be seen across sexes, variations do occur according to age. The median for respondents ages 50 and over showed a lower level of self-determination with a median result of 5.02, while the younger population ages 15-49 showed that they were more confident in their capacity to express their identity and orientate their development, with a median result of 5.91.
 
These results suggest that level of individual agency in Bosnia and Herzegovina is below the average results for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 6.7/10. This indicates that the necessary components are only in part provided for an enabling political, economic, social and cultural context that fosters individual well-being and life satisfaction and builds common values, norms and beliefs, which succeed in empowering them to live the life they wish.

 

12PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 41.14% (2010)   In 2010, 41.14% of the people polled in Bosnia and Herzegovina reported having participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in the last 12 months. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music...
Participation in going-out cultural activities: ()
12PARTICIPATION IN GOING-OUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: 41.14% (2010)
 
In 2010, 41.14% of the people polled in Bosnia and Herzegovina reported having participated at least once in a going-out cultural activity in the last 12 months. Going-out cultural activities include visits to cultural venues, such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, music festivals, galleries, museums, libraries, historical and archaeological monuments and museums abroad. Such activities require people actively choosing to attend a particular cultural activity, thus providing insight into the degree of cultural vitality and appreciation of culture. They also imply physical places for encounters to occur between audiences and artists, as well as among audiences, and thus insight into the degree of social interaction and connectivity. A result of 41.14% suggests a medium degree of cultural participation and a steady base for a domestic cultural audience.
 
The results vary from 5.02% of the population polled having attended a gallery or museum abroad to 32.25% of the population having attended a concert or music festival. The second lowest category of participation is attending museums in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 10.15%. Cross-analysis with the Governance dimension reveals that of the three select categories of cultural infrastructures, museums are the least equally distributed which may in part explain limited participation. Increasing equitable access to infrastructures may have a positive impact on cultural participation and thus the consumption of cultural goods and services as well as social connectivity.

Burkina Faso

Economy

GDP Burkina

1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 3.93% (2009)

  In 2008, the National Institute of Statistics and Demographics (INSD) estimated that select cultural activities contributed to 3.93% of the Burkina Faso’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which indicates that culture is responsible for a significant...
GDP Burkina
Contribution of cultural activities to GDP: ()

1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 3.93% (2009)

 
In 2008, the National Institute of Statistics and Demographics (INSD) estimated that select cultural activities contributed to 3.93% of the Burkina Faso’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which indicates that culture is responsible for a significant part of national production. This alternative indicator accounts for the estimated contribution of 3 fields of culture-related activities: activities related to paper industries- editing, printing, reproductions (1.2%); telecommunications (69.8%); and cultural and recreational activities (28.9%).
 
While already indicating a vibrant sector, INSD’s alternative indicator must be understood as a rough estimation of culture’s contribution to GDP. The results are subject to both under and overestimation. Regarding underestimation, many fields of cultural activities are not taken into consideration by this indicator due to the level of disaggregation of data available at the national level. In addition, the indicator only takes into consideration private and formal cultural activities. Cultural activities that take place in the informal economy and non-market establishments, as well as the indirect and induced impacts of the culture sector are not incorporated in the calculations but may be significant.  Regarding overestimation, the estimations for cultural and recreational activities are likely a great overestimation as specific cultural activities could not be extracted from a larger category of activities including all personal and collective services. Nevertheless, this alternative indicator offers valuable new information on the profits generated by cultural activities at the national level.

 

Cultural employment_Burkina
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 2.14% (2009)   In 2009, 2.14% of the employed population in Burkina Faso had cultural occupations (129,980 people).  The majority of cultural employment occurs in urban environments and consists of handicraft workers. The most commonly practiced handicrafts include weaving, carpentry, stone masonry, and jewelry-...
Cultural employment_Burkina
Cultural Employment: ()
2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 2.14% (2009)
 
In 2009, 2.14% of the employed population in Burkina Faso had cultural occupations (129,980 people).  The majority of cultural employment occurs in urban environments and consists of handicraft workers. The most commonly practiced handicrafts include weaving, carpentry, stone masonry, and jewelry-making. To the contrary, few individuals perform supporting or equipment related cultural occupations, which are indispensable for the creation, production and distribution of artistic and cultural content. 
 
While already significant, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated in this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure is only the tip of the iceberg since it does not cover non-cultural occupations performed in cultural establishments or induced occupations with a strong link to culture, such as employees of hospitality services located in or close to heritage sites. In addition, this figure likely does not cover all informal employment in the culture sector due to the reluctance of some participants to convey such occupations during official surveys. Employment in the informal culture sector is likely to be significant in Burkina Faso. Furthermore, because the raw data in Burkina Faso is only available to the three-digit level of international standard classifications, certain central cultural occupations are not taken into account. 
 
Nevertheless, this indicator already highlights culture’s non-negligible role as an employer in Burkina Faso and the sector’s potential as a source of wealth and income for individuals, in line with the priority given to the culture sector in the Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development (2010-2015).

 

Household Expenditures_Burkina
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 0.62% (2009)   In Burkina Faso, 0.62% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year of 2009. 47.4% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 52.6% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The consumption of jewellery (20.8%) and...
Household Expenditures_Burkina
Household expenditures on culture: ()
3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 0.62% (2009)
 
In Burkina Faso, 0.62% of household consumption expenditures were devoted to cultural activities, goods and services in the year of 2009. 47.4% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 52.6% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The consumption of jewellery (20.8%) and cultural services (12.6%) represent the largest share of central cultural 
 
goods and services consumed, while in the category of equipment/supporting goods and services, equipment for the reception, recording and reproduction of sound and image was alone responsible for 49.7% of the final result.
 
This result suggests a relatively low level of demand for the consumption of cultural goods and services, as the average for all test phase countries of the CDIS is situated at 2.43%. However, significant variations in consumption can be noted across the different income groups of the population, as well as across the regions and geographic areas of Burkina Faso. Households of the highest income quintile represent nearly 60% of all cultural expenditures, and although there are approximately four times as many households in rural environments, total urban expenditures on culture (8,417,127,757 FCA) represent nearly 90% of total rural expenditures on culture (9,494,701,900 FCA). Combined, two capital regions- the Centre and Hauts Bassins regions, represent 42.5% of all household expenditures on culture in Burkina Faso. Bobo Dioulasso, the capital of Hauts Bassins region, is the proclaimed capital of culture of Burkina Faso, while the national capital, Ouagadougou, is located in the Centre region. Both cities benefit from the investment of authorities in the local culture sector and its dynamism.
 
While already illustrating much about consumption practices in Burkina Faso, this indicator underestimates the actual household consumption of cultural goods and services due to methodological constraints and gaps in data available at the national level. It does not account for informal transactions or the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). Similarly, spending on cultural products that are not directly financed by households, such as design services and advertisements, are not taken into consideration; and it excludes certain expenditures that cannot be isolated due to the aggregation of coding systems. Despite these limitations, this indicator offers unprecedented insight into how Burkinabe households value cultural goods and services.

Education

Inclusive Education_Burkina
4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.09/1 (2009)   Education is undeniably a fundamental concern for development and despite the joint effort of national authorities and international organizations, the average level of education remains alarmingly low in Burkina Faso. Within this context, the result of 0.09/1 reflects the difficulties encountered...
Inclusive Education_Burkina
Inclusive education: ()
4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.09/1 (2009)
 
Education is undeniably a fundamental concern for development and despite the joint effort of national authorities and international organizations, the average level of education remains alarmingly low in Burkina Faso. Within this context, the result of 0.09/1 reflects the difficulties encountered enrolling children and maintaining attendance in schools. Although the right to education is recognized in the Constitution of Burkina Faso of 1991 (art. 18), and the State has committed to multiple international conventions and agreements in favour of the rights of the child and complete, fait and inclusive education, the core result for this indicator highlights significant persisting gaps and difficulties to implement these obligations.
 
This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has 2.76 years of schooling, which suggests that on average children complete less than half of primary school years. Consequently, the result is well below the targeted average of 10 years of schooling, which would permit Burkinabe to benefit from a complete cycle of primary and secondary schooling; the right to an education; the ability to participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills throughout school; as well as to benefit from the personal and social empowerment of learning. Furthermore, 66% of the targeted population continues to live in in education deprivation, having less than 4 years of schooling. This figure underlines the magnitude and persistence of obstacles to education.

 

Multilingualism_Burkina
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 42% (2013)    The Constitution of Burkina Faso recognizes French as the official language (Art. 35), but maintains that all Burkinabe are born free and equal in the eyes of the law and that no discrimination is allowed, including in regards to language (Art. 1). Within this context, 58% of the hours to be...
Multilingualism_Burkina
Multilingual Education: ()
5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 42% (2013) 
 
The Constitution of Burkina Faso recognizes French as the official language (Art. 35), but maintains that all Burkinabe are born free and equal in the eyes of the law and that no discrimination is allowed, including in regards to language (Art. 1). Within this context, 58% of the hours to be dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school is to be dedicated to the teaching of the official language- French. The remaining 42% of the time is to be dedicated to the teaching of international languages, English being the dominant international language taught. 0% of the required curriculum is dedicated to any local or regional languages, though approximately 60 languages are present across the 13 regions of Burkina Faso. In addition, although the law 013/96/ADP states that the official language (French) and national languages are to be the languages of education, 0% of the time is required to be dedicated to one of the 3 officially recognized national languages- Mooré, Fulfuldé or Dioula. These results indicate that while limited international linguistic diversity is promoted by the required curriculum, additional efforts may be necessary to promote the rich diversity of local Burkinabe languages and culture. 
 
However, it should be mentioned that select bilingual education programmes exist, though not part of the required curriculum or opportunities for all Burkinabé students. Their main objective is to promote access to basic education. The first bilingual programmes were instated in 1994. Such programs foresee a basic education cycle of five years instead of the usual six years’ cycle. In the first year of bilingual programs, 90% of instructional hours are taught in students’ mother tongue and 10% in French. This ratio progressively shifts to favour French, ending as 90% in French in the fifth year. Today, 41 schools offer bilingual programmes in 10 of Burkina Faso’s 13 regions, teaching in 7 national and local languages in addition to French.

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