Indicateurs de développement des médias (IDM)

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© Doha Center for Media Freedom

Conformément à son rôle normatif, le PIDC a mis au point un ensemble détaillé d’indicateurs de développement des médias (IDM), destinés à faciliter l’évaluation du paysage médiatique à l’échelle nationale. Ces indicateurs, qui portent sur tous les aspects du développement des médias, sont actuellement mis en application dans plusieurs pays à travers le monde pour identifier les besoins spécifiques de chaque pays.

 

L’élaboration des indicateurs de développement des médias est le fruit d’une large consultation internationale engagée par le Conseil intergouvernemental du PIDC en 2006, à sa 25ème session. Une cartographie détaillée des principales initiatives existantes (en anglais) pour définir les indicateurs de développement des médias a été réalisée, afin d'analyser leurs méthodologies respectives ainsi que leur valeur et leur pertinence pour les priorités du PIDC.

Sur la base de cette cartographie, un ensemble d'indicateurs visant à couvrir tous les aspects du développement des médias a été élaboré et finalisé après un processus de consultation de deux ans. Les indicateurs ont été approuvés par le Conseil lors de la session suivante, en 2008, "en tant qu'instrument important de diagnostic pour toutes les parties prenantes de l'évaluation du niveau de développement des médias dans un pays donné et par conséquent de détermination des secteurs dans lesquels l'assistance est la plus nécessaire". Le Conseil a adopté une décision demandant au Bureau du PIDC et aux autres parties prenantes travaillant dans le domaine du développement des médias de mettre en application les indicateurs quand ils déterminent, en collaboration avec les autorités nationales, des stratégies de développement de la communication.

Depuis 2008, les IDM ont été reconnus par les principaux acteurs du domaine du développement des médias, parmi lesquels le PNUD, la Banque Mondiale et le Conseil de l’Europe (voir la Résolution 1636, 2008), la Fédération internationale des journalistes, International Media Support, la Fondation médias pour l'Afrique de l'Ouest et le Centre de Doha pour la liberté des médias.

Les indicateurs de développement des médias définissent un cadre optimal pour que les médias puissent, à la fois, contribuer à la bonne gouvernance et au développement démocratique, et en bénéficier :
 

- un système de régulation favorable à la liberté d’expression, au pluralisme et à la diversité des médias

- pluralisme et diversité des médias, cadre économique dans lequel tous les acteurs sont en situation d’équité concurrentielle et transparence de la propriété

- les médias en tant que plateforme pour un débat démocratique

- formation professionnelle et soutien aux institutions de formation pour promouvoir la liberté d’expression, le pluralisme et la diversité

- les capacités infrastructurelles suffisent à soutenir des médias indépendants et pluralistes.

Cet ensemble d'indicateurs donne une image idéale de l'écologie des médias qui est à construire pour garantir la liberté d'expression, le pluralisme et la diversité des médias.

Un grand nombre de ces indicateurs seront inévitablement fondés sur des jugements qualitatifs et subjectifs, malgré un désir de trouver ceux qui sont quantitatifs et mesurables, là où c’est possible. Toute étude exhaustive des médias nécessitera des jugements, et les indicateurs contenus dans ce document le reconnaissent. Ce qui est important, c’est que les indicateurs subjectifs ou qualitatifs soient obtenus de façon transparente et accompagnés d’un texte expliquant comment ils ont été élaborés.

 

Indicateurs de développement des médias: cadre pour l’évaluation du développement des médias

Le présent rapport a été préparé dans le but de définir des indicateurs du développement des médias, conformément aux priorités du PIDC, à savoir : promouvoir la liberté d’expression et le pluralisme des médias; le développement des médias communautaires; le développement des ressources humaines (renforcement des capacités des professionnels des médias ainsi que des moyens institutionnels).

Ce projet définit cinq grandes catégories d’indicateurs pouvant être utilisés pour analyser le développement des médias dans un pays. Chaque catégorie se divise en un nombre de composantes qui contiennent à leur tour une série d’indicateurs généraux.

Il faut noter que ces indicateurs n’ont pas pour but de permettre une analyse longitudinale dans le temps et ne sont pas non plus destinés à faire des comparaisons entre pays ; ils sont un outil d’analyse devant aider les différents acteurs à évaluer l’état des médias et à mesurer l’impact des programmes de développement des médias. En tant qu’indicateurs, ils constituent des outils de diagnostic et non des injonctions : ils sont conçus pour assister les programmes de développement des médias et non pour imposer des conditions.

Enfin, il faut avoir présent à l’esprit que ceci est conçu comme un document vivant, qui sera testé et adapté sur le terrain par les utilisateurs auxquels il est destiné - les journalistes, organisations des médias et groupes de citoyens qui oeuvrent pour renforcer les médias au niveau local.

Afin de rendre le cadre des indicateurs de développement des médias complètement opérationnel, un nouvel ensemble normalisé de statistiques basées sur les IDM a été mis au point en collaboration avec l'Institut de statistique de l'UNESCO (ISU). Une enquête pilote a été menée dans 28 pays à travers le monde au cours de l’année 2011, suite à laquelle le nouveau questionnaire a été révisé et amélioré (Cliquez ici pour accéder au rapport analytique préparé par l'ISU sur la base de ce premier sondage pilote). Une deuxième phase de pilotage a été organisée en 2012 avec la participation d'une soixantaine de pays.

Ce cadre est actuellement mis en application dans des pays à travers le monde pour procéder à une évaluation approfondie de leur environnement médiatique. L'UNESCO a déjà réalisé des évaluations basées sur les IDM dans les pays suivants :







 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Bhoutan

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

Completed in 2010, the Bhutan Media Development Assessment Report provides a detailed and informed assessment of the Bhutanese media environment with an aim to serve as a framework for evidenced-based intervention. Bhutanese media are active participants in the process of change, creating new realities and sustaining traditional values.

The Assessment follows the introduction of democratic reforms in Bhutan and the rapid increase of media organizations resulting from the liberalization of media policy. It looks at areas of media development, defining issues and challenges that the media industry faces in Bhutan. Moreover, it gives an overview of media consumption in Bhutan, and prioritizes areas of interventions required.

Drafted in partnership with the UNDP and International Media Support, the assessment provides analysis of the media and communications environment in Bhutan against internationally accepted standards and principles.

The assessment found that a liberalized media licensing policy has been effective in encouraging media diversity and de­velopment and that constitutional guarantees exist which give Bhutanese citizens and the media considerable freedom of expression and speech.  However, the study revealed a need to encourage a culture of public discussion by enhancing access to media, especially in rural areas and un­reached populations. The findings also revealed a need for stronger right to information laws to be put in place in order to cre­ate a more transparent democratic system.

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en Croatie

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

In the course of its accession to the EU, Croatia had to meet EU media and information society requirements. This led to significant development of the Croatian media system. However, there remained a number of areas that could be further enhanced and problems to be identified in the media policy framework and its implementation. The Media Development Indicators (MDIs) Assessment was undertaken with the goal of further improvement and analysis of media development in Croatia.

The analysis of the status of pluralism, diversity and freedom in the Croatian media system, using the UNESCO MDIs as a methodological template, was completed in 2011 by a team of researchers at the Centre for Media and Communication Research, Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb.

This Report describes the capacity of the Croatian media to work in a democratic regulatory environment and in a free but concentrated market. It reveals that the infrastructure available in Croatia is technologically developed and increasingly digitalized. However, it also highlights problems that remain with regard to the democratic contribution of the media and transparency and accessibility of data regarding the media system, the precarious position of journalists, as well as still existing issues of independence of the media from economic or political power hubs.

 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Curaçao

 

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

Curaçao is the first country in the Caribbean to utilize UNESCO’s Media Development Indicators (MDIs) to assess its media landscape. Curaçao’s media landscape is vibrant one, with no less than 28 licensed radio stations, eight newspapers and three television stations for the island's population of just over 150,000 inhabitants.

The publication of the report comes six years after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010 (‘10-10-10’). Since then, the former ‘Island territory’ of Curaçao enjoys the status of an autonomous country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. By becoming a new country, Curaçao was provided with the opportunity to conceive a new constitution and embarked in a series of legal reforms. It is expected that this report, which is the result of a year-long study, will help guide legal reform and the definition of policies affecting the media sector in view of enhancing the media’s contribution to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in Curaçao.

Curaçao is the first country in the Caribbean to utilize UNESCO’s Media Development Indicators (MDIs) to assess its media landscape. Curaçao’s media landscape is vibrant one, with no less than 28 licensed radio stations, eight newspapers and three television stations for the island's population of just over 150,000 inhabitants. The publication of the report comes six years after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010 (‘10-10-10’). Since then, the former ‘Island territory’ of Curaçao enjoys the status of an autonomous country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. By becoming a new country, Curaçao was provided with the opportunity to conceive a new constitution and embarked in a series of legal reforms. It is expected that this report, which is the result of a year-long study, will help guide legal reform and the definition of policies affecting the media sector in view of enhancing the media’s contribution to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in Curaçao.

The MDI assessment process in Curaçao was nationally-driven and, as little data on media development was available, it involved wide-ranging consultations with key media stakeholders in addition to desk-based research. ‎The consultations included 28 in-depth interviews throughout Curaçao, four focus groups with media workers and members of the public, and three opinion polls respectively targeting 54 media workers, 11 media managers and a representative sample of 708 inhabitants of Curaçao. Careful attention was given to including perspectives from all areas and to ensuring a gender-sensitive approach.

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en République dominicaine

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement en espagnol.
 

 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en Equateur

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

Ecuador was the first country in Latin America to apply UNESCO’s Media Development Indicators (MDIs). In 2011, the year the report was completed, there were referendums underway in Ecuador with questions directly focusing on media. The study presents a comprehensive assessment of the state of media development in Ecuador and also a series of recommendations to be taken into account by relevant sectors to improve current conditions and construct a more independent, plural and participatory media platform.

The International Centre of Higher Studies in Communication for Latin America (CIESPAL) worked with UNESCO on the application of MDIs in Ecuador. The Report was enriched with contributions from specialists in international standards and from a consultative group comprised of representatives from the country’s different communication sectors.

The Assessment shows that freedom of expression in Ecuador is protected by the Constitution and legislation. However, prerequisites established in the Constitution imply that this right may be undermined. While there are laws to prevent concentration of media ownership, the media does not adequately reflect the diversity of society. The public and private media have modern technical facilities to gather, produce and distribute news. The community sector, by contrast, lacks the infrastructure for optimal use of ICTs.

 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en Egypte

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

In 2013 an in-depth Assessment of Media Development was completed in Egypt. Following the demonstrations of 2011 and the downfall of the Mubarak regime there was a pressing need for an assessment of the media in Egypt and immediate calls by civil society for significant reform of the legal framework governing the media. The UNESCO Media Development Indicators (MDIs) Report was completed within this context.

The Mubarak period was characterised by severe repression of democratic rights. Freedom of expression was among those rights that were most restricted during Mubarak’s rule. The Egypt MDIs Study provides a comprehensive review of media development needs based on a data gathering process with involvement of local experts and stakeholders. The assessment of Egypt relative to the indicators takes into account the special challenges facing the country, and in particular the context of revolutionary change that it is grappling with.

The Report was developed on behalf of UNESCO by a group of international and Egyptian media researchers. It provides local stakeholders including, civil society, state institutions and relevant professional communities with a detailed mapping of key media development needs in the country, based on the internationally accepted and tested methodology.

Some key recommendations were for the government to commit to engaging in widespread consultations with interested stakeholders before adopting or amending any laws which relate to freedom of expression or of the media. Moreover, that the guarantee of freedom of expression in the new Egyptian constitution be substantially stronger than in the past and that it should place strict limits on the power of the government to restrict this fundamental right. There is also a need for a right to information law that would give individuals a right to access information held by public authorities

 

 







 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Gabon

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

Initiative de l’UNESCO en partenariat avec le PNUD, cette étude, réalisée de juin à octobre 2011, a bénéficié de l’implication effective de plusieurs institutions publiques, privées et de la société civile. Elle vise l’amélioration de la compréhension du niveau et des défis liés au développement des médias pluralistes, libres et indépendants au Gabon.

Les enquêtes de terrain, conduites par les deux experts internationaux, ont été faites dans trois provinces du Gabon (Estuaire, Ngounié et Ogooué Maritime) avec près de 100 personnes interrogées (30% de femmes). Les résultats des enquêtes étaient soumis à la revue, aux commentaires et la validation des experts nationaux. Le rapport de cette étude tel que présenté ici contient un ensemble de recommandations formulées à l’attention du pouvoir public, des professionnels des médias et des partenaires au développement.

Depuis 2010, les autorités gabonaises souhaitent la révision de l’actuelle loi sur la communication audiovisuelle, cinématographique et écrite, adoptée en 2001. Ainsi, cette étude qui analyse en profondeur divers aspects de l’écologie des médias dont le cadre juridique et réglementaire est une contribution supplémentaire de l’UNESCO aux réflexions relatives à la réforme du cadre de régulation des médias et par voie de conséquence au développement des médias au Gabon.

La présente étude est basée sur les Indicateurs de développement des médias de l’UNESCO, approuvés en 2008 par le Conseil intergouvernemental du Programme international pour le développement de la communication. Ces indicateurs sont un instrument d’analyse holistique de l’environnement des médias dans un pays donné.

 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en Jordanie

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

The report on Media Development in Jordan was carried out in 2015 as part of the Support to Media in Jordan Project, funded by the European Union (EU). The MDI assessment in Jordan was complemented by a comparative analysis of better public service media (PSM) practices in selected European countries and the contemporary practice in Jordan. Together, the MDI assessment and the comparative PSM analysis are intended to form the basis for a review of the government’s Action Plan for the Media Strategy that could lead to the development of a revised Action Plan to be agreed upon by the relevant national stakeholders.

The study was carried out by a team of four national researchers and an international expert between January and June 2015, under the guidance of UNESCO and NGO International Media Support. In line with the methodology used for all MDI-based assessments, the study in Jordan relied heavily on multi-stakeholder consultations and followed a process that was inclusive and gender-sensitive. The consultation process included:

10 focus group discussions on specific thematic areas such as the legal and policy framework, refugees, gender and community media; Eight UNESCO-facilitated national consultations in Ajloun, Jordan Valley, Karak, Maan, Madaba, Mafraq, Tafileh and Zarqa; Four thematic workshops and a thematic roundtable focusing on public service broadcasting, training and education, self-regulation, local radio and Media and Information Literacy; Over 30 individual interviews; Input and support from a Jordanian Advisory Board of experts in media development.

In addition to the consultations, the study involved an extensive literature and legal review.

 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en Libye

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

As in any open society, the Libyan media sector has the potential to bolster the country’s democratic transition by providing reliable, unbiased and timely information to the population, and educating the Libyan population about the broader political process. International donors have an opportunity to support the development of the Libyan media sector by facilitating training and promoting professional journalistic practices and a fair regulatory environment that will encourage the development of professional journalism.

In the three years since the fall of the former regime, many international actors have worked to develop the Libyan media sector. To track these developments, UNESCO conducted a partial baseline assessment of the current state of media development in the country based on the Media Development Indicators (MDIs).

UNESCO and the national counterparts decided to limit the focus of the MDI assessment to the two areas most relevant to the challenges existing in the media sector at the time the assessment was being undertaken in early 2014, namely Safety of Journalists and Professional Capacity Building and Supporting Institutions that underpin Freedom of Expression, Pluralism and Diversity. In doing so, this report provides the essential background to understand why crimes against media professionals are committed with impunity, and perhaps more worryingly, where the media itself plays an active role in the conflict.
 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias à Madagascar

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en Mongolie

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

This MDI report developed in Mongolia, published in 2016 by UNESCO, is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the media landscape in the country. It was launched by UNESCO at the request of the Globe International Center and carried out in collaboration with specialized NGOs such as the Press Institute, the Confederation of Mongolian Journalists and the Transparency Fund, within the context of ongoing discussions on media law reform in Mongolia.

This report is the result of an assessment on the Mongolian media landscape undertaken in 2013-2014 to determine the level of media development in the country and to inform and provide recommendations for future developments in the media sector. The assessment is based on the UNESCO/IPDC Media Development Indicators (MDIs), which are an internationally recognized analytical tool that make possible a detailed overview of national media landscapes and related media development priorities.

This assessment places special emphasis on issues affecting freedom of expression and press freedom; how current state legislation impacts on the media and how it can be amended to provide more space for self-regulation within the media; legislation regarding defamation; restrictions on the daily activities of media outlets; transparency in media ownership; standards of journalism, professional training and research; and labour relations and working rights affecting journalists in their daily activities. It provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges facing Mongolia’s media as the sector grows substantially.

The assessment was carried out by UNESCO, in partnership with a network of organizations, including the Globe International Center, the Press Institute, the Confederation of Mongolian Journalists, and the NGO Transparency Fund.

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Mozambique

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

Mozambique has experienced a dramatic growth of its community media sector and a general expansion of its media environment over the last 10 years. The Government of Mozambique requested UNESCO to carry out a study that would use the Media Development Indicators (MDIs) to assess its evolving national media landscape.

The specific objective was to assess the existence or otherwise of a legal, political, institutional and infrastructural framework that favours press freedom, pluralism and diversity of the media in Mozambique and produce recommendations to the appropriate actors on the basis of the findings.

UNESCO collaborated with the Mozambican Chapter of the Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA-Mozambique) to organize the study. The research team based its work on an extensive literature review, with an emphasis on the main applicable legislation and policy and strategy documents for the media sector in Mozambique.

Mozambique has a diverse media with a mix of state, public sector, private and community media, with the public and community radio broadcasting sectors having the most extensive coverage. However, there is a continuing legal deficit in certain aspects, such as the existence of laws that are in contradiction with the principles defined by the Constitution regarding media, and cases of infringements of the law that have been denounced by media organizations and civil society in general. Moreover, the economic fragility of the sector as a whole is obvious, particularly in the community sub-sector.

 

 







 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Myanmar

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

The MDI report on media development in Myanmar, published in June 2016, is the result of a collaboration between the UNESCO Bangkok Office and press freedom NGO International Media Support (IMS). National ownership of the assessment process was ensured through the involvement of the department of journalism at the National Management College of Myanmar as well as through various multi-stakeholder consultations. Five years after the country embarked on a series of political, social, and economic reform processes, this report represents an objective, analytical stock-taking of how far Myanmar has progressed towards a more free, independent and pluralistic media.

Key developments in the media sector include the adoption in 2014 of the Printing and Publishing Enterprise Law (PPEL), which officially abolished past prior censorship and allowed newspapers to become editorially independent from the state; the Broadcasting Law of 2015, which enables private, public and community media to flourish; and the establishment of the Myanmar News Media Council in October 2015.

The MDI report on media development in Myanmar, published in June 2016, is the result of a collaboration between the UNESCO Bangkok Office and press freedom NGO International Media Support (IMS). National ownership of the assessment process was ensured through the involvement of the department of journalism at the National Management College of Myanmar as well as through various multi-stakeholder consultations. Five years after the country embarked on a series of political, social, and economic reform processes, this report represents an objective, analytical stock-taking of how far Myanmar has progressed towards a more free, independent and pluralistic media. Key developments in the media sector include the adoption in 2014 of the Printing and Publishing Enterprise Law (PPEL), which officially abolished past prior censorship and allowed newspapers to become editorially independent from the state; the Broadcasting Law of 2015, which enables private, public and community media to flourish; and the establishment of the Myanmar News Media Council in October 2015.

The assessment was carried out over a period of 18 months and canvassed the multiple aspects of the media landscape in Myanmar, addressing the 50 indicators of the MDI framework. Data gathering methods included literature review, legal stock taking, a public opinion poll involving 1020 respondents, a total of 90 key informant interviews, and 48 focus groups discussions across five states and four regions. Each chapter of the report provides a set of recommendations on the way forward with a view to contributing to the ongoing reform of the media sector in Myanmar.

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Népal

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

Nepal’s media have developed tremendously over the past decades. UNESCO’s pioneering base-line study “Assessment of Media Development in Nepal”, launched on 19 December 2013, provides comprehensive material to analyze the country’s media landscape. Applying the UNESCO’s Media Development Indicators, the Study contributes to present discussions on constitutional and legal reforms and media self-regulation mechanisms.

It is intended to guide the efforts of all actors working for media development. It also provides a baseline for subsequent assessments of Nepal’s media landscape. The study was coordinated by a team of national experts and builds on analysis and suggestions made by representatives of government, media trade unions, professional associations and civil society.

The wide-ranging Study deals with legal and policy frameworks relating to the media as a matter of both form and substance. It assesses the capacity of Nepal’s media regulation system to contribute to freedom of expression, pluralism and diversity of the media. It analyses the existing legal and policy frameworks and regulatory systems for broadcasting, and other legal provisions that may restrict the work of journalists. It discusses existing media laws and regulations in Nepal and their compliance with international standards. How media reflects the diversity of society is looked at and also the role of public service broadcasting. The Study further focuses on the availability of professional media training and academic courses available for media. The Report provides concrete recommendations for action the development of media in Nepal.

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en Palestine

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

This report aims to inform and support the development of Palestine’s media sector through the conduct of a comprehensive assessment of the media environment, based on international legal standards and good practice.

This project is part of a wider UNESCO initiative to assess the strengths and weaknesses of national media sectors across the globe using a common analytical framework endorsed by a UNESCO intergovernmental Council - the UNESCO/IPDC Media Development Indicators.

Through this study, UNESCO has sought to engage national stakeholders in a process of constructive dialogue and critical reflection in order to identify key media development priorities. Such a platform allowed discussion of the most appropriate ways of addressing the priorities in line with international standards. UNESCO expects that this report will constitute a useful reference for all stakeholders and effectively contribute to the further development of Palestine’s media landscape.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Soudan du Sud

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

The Assessment of Media Development in South Sudan accompanies South Sudan in the process of democratic transition and contributes to the development of free, independent and pluralistic media. While this analysis is based on international standards and good practices, the recommendations are adapted to the particularities of South Sudan following a National Conference on the Preliminary Findings of the Assessment of Media Development in South Sudan organized on 29 October 2013.

The assessment was undertaken between 2012 and 2014, and jointly funded by International Media Support (IMS), UNESCO through the International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). It provides the first detailed analysis of the media landscape in South Sudan since its independence. It looks at the legal, regulatory and economic frameworks in which the media in the country operates, their democratic potential, education and training initiatives and the infrastructure that impacts media development in the country.

The assessment was carried out in a volatile and fast-changing environment, but will serve as a baseline for media development initiatives in the country by the Media Sector Working Group (MSWG). The MSWG, of which UNESCO serves as Secretariat, coordinates the efforts of all media partners, both nationally and internationally, towards the planning and monitoring of media development activities in South Sudan in line with development goals. The working group advocates for the necessary human and financial resources to address the most pressing priorities facing the public, community and private media sectors.

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Swaziland

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.
 

 

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias aux Maldives

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

Based on UNESCO's Media Development Indicators (MDIs) this Report assesses the overall state of media development in the Maldives. In 2008 the Maldives adopted a new Constitution. However, there is still much to be done with respect to media freedom in the Maldives. The MDIs Report takes into account the special situation of the country, particularly in terms of its size and consequent relative lack of capacity, and makes recommendations to assist the Maldives with their media development.

The Maldives report was a rapid assessment written in regards to an urgent need for the assessment of media development at time when the country was in the process of adopting fundamental constitutional and judicial reforms. The report therefore constitutes a lighter application of the MDI methodology. The preparation of this assessment was based on interviews conducted during a mission to the Maldives in 2009 and supplemented by information provided by email, and a review of the available literature.

In the late-2000s the Maldives began to relax media laws and to license private stations. In 2007, the government reported on the need to create a legal framework for the media and aimed to address this, among other things, in its 2008 Constitution. However, many remaining problems were highlighted in the 2009 MDI assessment and recommendations were made in regards to: media legislation being in line in with international standards, a need for independent regulators and the removal of undue restrictions on media content. Measures also need to be taken to ensure greater access to television and the internet for underprivileged people and a longer term ICT policy plan developed and implemented.

 

 



 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias au Timor Leste

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

La description de cette publication est disponible uniquement an anglais.

Only gaining effective independence from Indonesia in 1999 and formally declaring its independence in 2002, Timor-Leste has had a turbulent recent history, including decades of struggle against Indonesian occupation. This Report assesses the overall state of media development in Timor-Leste in light of these difficulties. It takes into account the special challenges facing the country, including its relative poverty, small population, geographic isolation and the wider challenges associated with its recent emergence from colonial rule and foreign occupation.

The Media Development Indicators (MDIs) Assessment in Timor-Leste was completed in 2011. Timor-Leste’s political instability and problems with its democratic elections post-independence led to difficulties creating a Constitution and legislation relating to media. The laws left over from the the Indonesian Civil Code were inapplicable to the current situation of the country. When a working government was formed in 2009, the new laws proposed were strongly criticised by both local civil society organisations and members of the international community.

The Report found the adoption of legislation in accordance with international standards a priority. Further recommendations were for the establishment of an independent body to ensure the regulation of broadcasting licensing in the public interest through a transparent process involving civil society. A pressing need to increase the accessibility of quality access to the Internet and other communications technologies was also revealed.

 

 

Etude sur le développement des médias en Tunisie

Basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias de l'UNESCO

Il est largement reconnu que les médias ont un rôle central à jouer pour assurer la transition démocratique et le renforcement des droits politiques et des libertés civiles. Cette étude, basée sur les indicateurs de développement des médias (IDM) de l’UNESCO, examine les progrès qui ont été accomplis dans le développement des medias en Tunisie depuis la révolution du 14 janvier 2011. Les IDM fournissent un cadre global pour l’analyse des forces et des faiblesses de environnement actuel des médias en Tunisie, selon une méthodologie éprouvée qui est basée sur les normes internationales et les bonnes pratiques. Le but de cette étude est d’accompagner la Tunisie dans la transition démocratique et de contribuer au développement de médias libres, indépendants et pluralistes.

Coordonnée par une équipe composée de deux experts nationaux et d’un expert international, elle s’appuie sur le travail de l’Instance Nationale pour la Réforme de l’Information et de la Communication (INRIC), du gouvernement, des syndicats professionnels des médias, de la société civile et des organisations internationales, et a été effectuée en consultation avec les principales parties prenantes nationales. Cette étude du secteur des médias s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une collaboration renforcée entre l’UNESCO et la Tunisie pour appuyer la transformation de l’espace médiatique et, par là même, la transition démocratique en Tunisie.

L’étude recommande, entre autre, que le gouvernement devrait assurer une large consultation publique avant d’adopter ou de modifier toute loi qui concerne la liberté d’expression ou des médias. En outre, la nouvelle Constitution devrait inclure un chapitre complet et détaillé sur les droits humains fondamentaux conformément aux conventions et pactes internationaux ratifiés par la Tunisie. Il faudrait renforcer les mesures contre la concentration au sein et entre les différents secteurs des médias et assurer la transparence en ce qui concerne la propriété, et le système de régulation du paysage audiovisuel devrait avoir comme objectif principal de promouvoir un mélange varié de médias publics, privés et associatifs.

 

 

D'autres études sont en cours en Bolivie, au Brésil, en Colombie, en Côte d'Ivoire, en République Dominicaine, en Irak, au Libéria, à Madagascar, au Maroc, en Ouganda, au Rwanda, au Swaziland, au Togo, et en Uruguay, ainsi qu’un projet régional en Europe du Sud-Est. Dans la plupart des cas, l’UNESCO travaille en partenariat avec une organisation de développement des médias ou un institut de recherche local, indépendant et crédible, chargé de la coordination de l’étude. La priorité est donnée aux consultations multipartites réunissant des acteurs publics et privés. Ces évaluations permettent de proposer des recommandations factuelles destinées à aider les décideurs et les acteurs du développement des médias à remédier aux lacunes identifiées et à mettre en place un environnement favorable aux médias libres, indépendants et pluralistes.
 
D'autres organisations utilisent également le cadre IDM pour effectuer des études de leur propre initiative, tel que cela a été le cas au Benin (projet effectué par le Media Foundation for West Africa et DANIDA). Une évaluation (en anglais) de l'environnement médiatique au Sri Lanka à l'aide du cadre MDI a également été publiée par le partenaire international de l'UNESCO, International Media Support.
 
L'UNESCO a publié un guide pratique pour assister les chercheurs dans la mise en oeuvre des indicateurs de développement des médias, en s'appuyant sur les lessons apprises lors des premières évaluations.
 
Les indicateurs de développement des médias sont également utilisés pour définir une approche commune des Nations Unies en matière de développement des médias et de bonne gouvernance dans différents pays.

Enfin, le Bureau du PIDC a revu le formulaire de soumission des projets en demandant aux candidats d’expliquer les liens entre les IDM et les objectifs de développement de leur projet.