Explorez Digest

Bosnie-Herzégovine

Communication

20ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 61% (2011) In 2011, 61% of the population aged 17-64 in Bosnia and Herzegovina had access to and used the Internet. The Communications Regulatory Agency estimated that there were 2,113,100 Internet users in 2011, increased from 2 million in 2010, and recent estimates suggest that the number of Internet users...
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20ACCESS AND INTERNET USE: 61% (2011)
 
In 2011, 61% of the population aged 17-64 in Bosnia and Herzegovina had access to and used the Internet. The Communications Regulatory Agency estimated that there were 2,113,100 Internet users in 2011, increased from 2 million in 2010, and recent estimates suggest that the number of Internet users has continued to grow in the years since 2011. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result is slightly greater than the average result for all countries having implemented the CDIS, which is situated at 61.4%. 
 
Access to Internet is possible in nearly all cities, and statistics indicate xDSL subscriptions and cable Internet access were the dominant forms of access in 2011 (48.1% and 23.1% of the total number of Internet subscribers). While access is available across the country, the choice of multiple providers is available in bigger cities, while in smaller towns competition is usually limited to five service providers. 
 
The development of information technologies, and in particular the Internet, is significantly transforming the way people access, create, produce and disseminate cultural content and ideas, influencing people’s opportunities to access and participate in cultural life. The Republika Srpska has prioritized the development of information programmes to provide fast technology services and the formation of databases, and has included it in their Strategy for Development of Culture in the Republic of Srpska. Country-wide, an example of a successful database is the COBISS program that includes nearly all public, school and faculty libraries in a unique network, increasing access to content nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 

DIVERSITY OF DISTRIBUTED FILMS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 3.6% (2010)  In 2010, approximately 3.6% of all State-wide distributed films were of domestic origin, including co-productions. 168 films were distributed nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which 162 were foreign, 1 was a co-production, and 5 were domestically...
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DIVERSITY OF DISTRIBUTED FILMS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATOR): 3.6% (2010) 
 
In 2010, approximately 3.6% of all State-wide distributed films were of domestic origin, including co-productions. 168 films were distributed nation-wide across Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which 162 were foreign, 1 was a co-production, and 5 were domestically produced. The overwhelming majority of distributed films were of foreign origin, 96.4%.
 
This result may reflect very low production capacities of the domestic film industry, or low levels of public support offered to local creators for the development and distribution of domestic content and the local cultural industries. Obstacles that may be contributing to low production include a lack of infrastructure and material support to production.  Inadequate infrastructure is a major contributing factor to limited distribution, screening, and archiving capacities. Cinemas and facilities were largely destroyed during the war in the 1990s; today 6 functioning cinemas are available in only six large cities, and only two film archives continue to pursue their work with limited financial support from authorities. According to the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, solid infrastructure and the coherent organization of the production, distribution and screening of films is necessary for the development of cinematography nation-wide. 
 
Nevertheless, the film industry is already a significant contributor to the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the indicators of the Economy dimension, 1.8% of employed persons work in motion picture activities, and the contribution of these activities to GDP is nearly 1%. Furthermore, it is significant to note that the ratio of ticket sales for domestic films (16.7% : 83.3%) compared to foreign films is much higher than the ratio of domestic to foreign films distributed (3.6% : 96.4%), indicating a genuine public demand and potential for the growth of the domestic market.
 
Cinematography has been steadily developing in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina thanks to a rich film tradition and investment in the education of young experts, as illustrated by the indicators of the Education Dimension. The quality of domestic productions has earned recognition in the form of multiple prestigious international prizes including Best Script at the Cannes Film Festival (2001), Best Foreign Film at the American Academy Awards (2002, 2006), and the Golden Bear the Berlin International Film Festival (2006), to name but a few. In addition to the domestic market, such international recognition also shows the export potential of the industry. 

 

19FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 52/100 (2012) The freedom of expression, the freedom of the media and the free flow of information are protected by law and guaranteed in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 2 and Annex). Bosnia and Herzegovina’s score of 52/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media...
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19FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: 52/100 (2012)
 
The freedom of expression, the freedom of the media and the free flow of information are protected by law and guaranteed in the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 2 and Annex).
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s score of 52/100 indicates that their print, broadcast, and internet-based media is currently ‘partly free.’ This score illustrates the efforts made by the authorities to ensure an enabling environment for freed media to operate and freedom of expression to be respected and promoted. Through the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information and content, these freedoms are the building blocks for the development of open and participatory societies as well as key enablers for creativity and cultural diversity. 
 
An independent body, the Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA), oversees the work of the media and issues broadcasting licenses, as stipulated by the Law on Communication (Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, no. 31/03). The CRA operates at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina in accordance with general principles of legality, objectivity, transparency and non-discrimination and is entirely independent in the decision-making process. Although often exposed to political pressure, the agency is financially independent and its licensing decisions are generally seen as fair and impartial. 
 
Nevertheless, key improvements remain in the current political and legal environments. While State legislation guarantees the freedom of expression, politicians have been reported to continue to exert considerable pressure on journalists, and media outlets continue to have ties with political parties. In spite of libel being officially decriminalized in 2003, journalists can still face civil penalties over libel complaints, and the burden of proof in such cases is placed on defendants. The Free Media Helpline, a program run by the Bosnia and Herzegovina Journalists’ Association, recorded 39 violations of journalists’ rights between January 1 and September 10, 2012, and noted an increase in threats and pressure by politicians since 2011. While legislation on the freedom of information is in place, certain government bodies continue to not observe the law, hindering access and making the process to obtain official data cumbersome. 


Economy

1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 5.72% (2011) In 2011, cultural activities contributed to 5.72% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which indicates that culture is responsible for an important part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods...
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1 CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ACTIVITIES TO GDP: 5.72% (2011)
 
In 2011, cultural activities contributed to 5.72% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which indicates that culture is responsible for an important part of national production, and that it helps generate income and sustain the livelihoods of its citizens. 32% of this contribution can be attributed to central cultural activities and 68% can be attributed to equipment/supporting activities. 
 
While already indicating a vibrant sector, culture’s contribution to GDP is underestimated by this indicator as it only takes into consideration private and formal cultural activities and excludes the indirect and induced impacts of the culture sector. Nevertheless, this indicator offers valuable new information on the profits generated by the culture sector. Although the largest contribution (64%) to GDP is made by wired and wireless telecommunications activities, falling under the category of equipment/supporting activities, 1.83% of GDP can be attributed to central cultural activities alone. The central activities that contributed the most to Bosnia and Herzegovina’s GDP include engineering, television programming and broadcasting activities, architectural activities, advertising, and the publishing of newspapers. Given the weakened State economy in the post-war context, the strength of the sector’s impact on GDP is remarkable.
 
The Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) states, “In the post-war period in our country, with a large number of industrial potential destroyed, it is the cultural industries that can have a significant impact on overall development. It is a field of activity which can provide many jobs and achieve social profit,” and identifies culture and the cultural industries as an “area of investment and personal development.” However, no concrete measures have yet been taken to ensure the prioritization of culture for economic development or to permit regularly tracing the trade flows of cultural products and services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Regularly collected data could increase the visibility of the sector’s significance as well as assist in monitoring the defined objectives outlined in policies. 

 

2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 4.7% (2011) In 2011, 4.7% of the employed population in Bosnia and Herzegovina worked in cultural establishments(28,983 people). 65% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 35% held occupations in equipment/supporting activities.  Though this result already emphasizes...
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2 CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT: 4.7% (2011)
 
In 2011, 4.7% of the employed population in Bosnia and Herzegovina worked in cultural establishments(28,983 people). 65% of these individuals held occupations in central cultural activities, while 35% held occupations in equipment/supporting activities. 
 
Though this result already emphasizes culture’s important role as an employer in the country, the global contribution of the culture sector to employment is underestimated by this indicator due to the difficulty of obtaining and correlating all the relevant data. This figure does not cover cultural occupations performed in non-cultural establishments or induced occupations with a strong link to culture. 
 
When cross-analyzing this indicator with the results for the Contribution of Cultural Activities to GDP, it is noted that the same sub-sectors with the highest added value also employ the largest number of people. Paradoxically, the ratio of the contribution of central to equipment/supporting activities is reversed:  32:68 for the Contribution of Cultural Activities to GDP versus 65:35 for Cultural Employment. 
 
Cultural employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not as strong as in the pre-war period. As a result of the destruction in the 1990s, there was a large migration of the population, destruction of cultural resources, as well as the outflow of skilled staff. Nevertheless, the result of 4.7%shows culture’s steadfast role as a significant employer, especially for a creative workforce. In April 2013, the Labour and Employment Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina estimated that 648,656 individuals had paid employment while 549,567 were unemployed. Given this strained economic situation, the culture sector’s steady source of employment is all the more significant. To further increase employment, the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2008) suggests the creation of prerequisites and standards as part of appropriate strategies for job creation in the culture sector.

 

3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 2.43% (2007) In Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2.43% of average monthly household expenditures were devoted to cultural goods and services in the year 2007 (37.41 BAM or 19.13 EUR). 77% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 23% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The...
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3 HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURES ON CULTURE: 2.43% (2007)
 
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2.43% of average monthly household expenditures were devoted to cultural goods and services in the year 2007 (37.41 BAM or 19.13 EUR). 77% was spent on central cultural goods and services, and 23% on equipment/supporting goods and services. The consumption of books was responsible for the largest share of central goods and services consumed, and the repair of audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment was responsible for the largest share of equipment/supporting goods and services.
 
This result suggests a significant demand for cultural goods, though significant variations in the consumption of cultural goods and services can be noted across the different entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. While residents of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina spent 42.04 BAM on cultural goods and services, the Republika Srpska and Brčko District spent 30.09 BAM and 22.74 BAM respectively. Cross-analyzing these results with the indicators of the Governance dimension suggests that the notably lower levels of consumption of the residents of the Brčko District may in part be contributed to a lack of cultural infrastructures. 
 
Though already significant, this final result of 2.43% is a sub-estimation of the total actual consumption of households. It does not account for the value of cultural goods and services acquired by households and provided by non-profit institutions at prices that are not economically significant (e.g. in-kind transfers). For example, it does not include museum and public library services and free public cultural events. 
 
>> While the Economy indicators suggest that there is a non-negligible demand for the consumption of cultural goods, services and activities, they also indicate that this result reflecting the demand side of the domestic market is significantly less than the final results that measure the production side (GDP and employment). Combined, this may in part reflect consumption at insignificant prices, or alternatively it may suggest domestic production does not target domestic consumption of cultural goods and services, instead targeting a foreign audience. More research regarding cultural participation practices is necessary to understand more about the potential of the domestic market.

Education

4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.99/1 (2005) The 1995 Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 3) and the 2003 Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education declare all citizens’ right to an education. Within this context, the result of 0.99/1 reflects the success of authorities in guaranteeing this fundamental cultural...
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4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: 0.99/1 (2005)
 
The 1995 Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article 3) and the 2003 Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education declare all citizens’ right to an education. Within this context, the result of 0.99/1 reflects the success of authorities in guaranteeing this fundamental cultural right in a complete, fair and inclusive manner. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, primary education is obligatory and free of charge, while secondary and tertiary education is available to all with a required entry fee. This result shows that on average, the target population aged 17-22 has 11.4 years of schooling, which is superior to the targeted 10 years. In addition, only a very small minority of 1% of the target population lives in education deprivation, having less than 4 years of schooling. This result shows that despite Bosnia and Herzegovina’s recent strife, public authorities’ efforts have been overwhelmingly successful in assuring that citizens enjoy the right to an education, and participate in the construction and transmission of values, attitudes and cultural skills throughout school, as well as benefit from the personal and social empowerment of learning.

 

5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 85% (2009) The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995) states that the enjoyment of rights and freedoms shall be secured to all persons without discrimination on any grounds, including language (Article 2). According to the Constitutions of the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina...
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5 MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION: 85% (2009)
 
The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995) states that the enjoyment of rights and freedoms shall be secured to all persons without discrimination on any grounds, including language (Article 2). According to the Constitutions of the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there are three official languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian (Article 7 and Amendment XXIX). In addition, there are two official scripts: Cyrillic and Latin. 
 
According to the 2009 official curriculums of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republika Srpska, and the Brčko District, an average of 44% of the required time dedicated to languages in the first two years of secondary school (grades 10-11) is to be dedicated to the teaching of one of the three official languages. The remaining 56% of the time is to be dedicated to the teaching of international languages; 32% is to be dedicated to teaching a first international language, and 24% to a second. These results indicate that an average of 85% of the total time dedicated to teaching languages State-wide is spent promoting multilingualism in the first two years of secondary school and that linguistic diversity is particularly encouraged regarding the three official languages and openness to international languages.
 
Primary and secondary school curricula require one of the three official languages to be taught in each grade. The first international language is introduced in the third grade of primary school and the second in the sixth. English, French, and German are favored options, while Spanish, Italian and Turkish have recently been introduced. The average ratio of time dedicated to official languages versus international languages in primary schooling is 62:38.
 
These figures show efforts to encourage the learning of official languages, strengthening identity, while at the same time enhancing the valorization of cultural diversity through the teaching of international languages.  However, in spite of these promising results, none of the 17 minority languages are part of the required curriculums.Although the Constitutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska state that other languages and alphabets may be used to teach in regions inhabited by groups speaking minority languages (Amendment XXIX and Article 7), the representation of such local and regional languages in the formal education system remains 0%. Introducing these languages into official school curriculums would improve minorities’ education and working opportunities, and would enhance cross-cultural understanding amongst the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 

6 ARTS EDUCATION: 6.45% (2009) In Bosnia and Herzegovina, an average of 6.45% of all instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school are to be dedicated to arts education, reflecting a medium level of priority given to the arts and culture. The Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and...
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6 ARTS EDUCATION: 6.45% (2009)
 
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, an average of 6.45% of all instructional hours in the first two years of secondary school are to be dedicated to arts education, reflecting a medium level of priority given to the arts and culture. The Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina prescribes “stimulating arts and creative content in the educational system;” one of the goals is to integrate cultural programmes in all levels of education by 2014 and to require liberal artists to work with pupils and students (Indicator 4.3.1). Bosnia and Herzegovina’s final result reflects the successful integration of culture in secondary education. The sub-disciplines of the arts that are incorporated in the official school curricula are music and painting. Other sub-disciplines are offered as elective subjects, such as photography, drama, and dance. 
 
Nevertheless, while this result for secondary education is above the average across all test phase countries of the CDIS, which is situated at 4.84%, a gap in the priority given to arts education can be noted for secondary schooling at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On average, 10.90% of all educational hours are to be dedicated to arts education during primary schooling. This is nearly twice what is required during secondary education. Moreover, when looking at the following indicator on tertiary and training programmes that are offered in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the coverage is nearly complete. Such a gap may inhibit realizing the culture sector’s full potential as an employer by preventing students from developing an interest in a professional career in the sector during key formative years.

 

7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.8/1 (2010) Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.8/1 indicates that the Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. Indeed, the coverage of public and government-dependent private...
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7 PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE CULTURE SECTOR: 0.8/1 (2010)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina’s result of 0.8/1 indicates that the Bosnian-Herzegovinian authorities have manifested a clear interest and willingness to invest in the training of cultural professionals. Indeed, the coverage of public and government-dependent private technical and tertiary education is rather comprehensive in Bosnia and Herzegovina, offering various types of courses and permitting cultural professionals to receive the necessary training to pursue a career in the culture sector.
 
Six of the eight public government-funded universities in the country offer programmes in the field of culture, and one of the goals of the Action Plan of the Strategy for Cultural Policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina is to increase the number of students in cultural fields (Indicator 4.3.1). Approximately 320 students are enrolled in higher education cultural programmes each year, while only 170 graduate. Although the coverage of professional training is rather satisfactory, enrolment in these programmes represents only 0.3% of the 107,609 students enrolled at the 40 public and private higher education institutions in the year 2010/2011.
 
The fields most represented are music, the fine arts and film, the former two of which have various programmes on offer at five universities, and the latter at four. Though employment in the field of architecture is rather high as demonstrated by the Economy dimension indicators, architecture is only offered by two universities: the University of Banja Luka and the University of Sarajevo. Relative to heritage, archaeology is only available at the University of Mostar. 
 
One notable gap exists in both the coverage of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and tertiary education in culture; the field of Cultural Management is not represented in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s educational system. Transforming artistic and creative capacities into economically viable activities, goods and services and the effective management of cultural businesses requires considering culture-specific aspects of the sector. A lack of training in cultural management may hinder the emergence of a dynamic cultural class and the development of competitive cultural enterprises.

Gender-Equality

17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS) The Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) conforms to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination and is the most important instrument for the development of awareness of gender issues and the consideration of...
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17 GENDER EQUALITY OBJECTIVE OUTPUTS (ALTERNATIVE INDICATORS)
 
The Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2003) conforms to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination and is the most important instrument for the development of awareness of gender issues and the consideration of gender in the development of public policies and regulations. However, while gender legislation exists, a series of alternative indicators reveal persisting gaps where additional investment is needed to improve gender equality outputs.
 
While little significant divergence can be noted in the areas of gender equity legislation and education, more prominent gaps can be seen regarding labour force and political participation. Although 56.7% of men are either employed or actively searching for work, only 33.2% of women participate in the labour force. Additionally, the most significant gap is observed regarding the outcomes of political participation where a major imbalance persists, in spite of a quota system in favor of women’s participation being in place. In 2012, women only represented 21% of parliamentarians. In 2010, the Gender Equality Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in cooperation with Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina, conducted a study on the depiction of women candidates in the media. The results of the study indicat