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Accessing cultural diversity through media support and public service
Danemark
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2016
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Au Danemark, la politique médiatique fait partie intégrante de la politique culturelle. Un accord entre le gouvernement et le Parlement sur la politique médiatique, d’une durée habituelle de quatre ans, forme la base législative dans le domaine de la radio, de la télévision, des médias écrits et d’internet.

La notion de service public est un pilier de la politique médiatique danoise. A l’échelle nationale comme régionale, les médias de service public contribuent à garantir le pluralisme au travers de multiples supports, et d’un large éventail de programmes et de services s’adressant à tous les groupes de la société.

Destinée à renforcer la démocratie danoise, la politique médiatique constitue le socle d’un paysage médiatique varié, qui favorise l'accès à une diversité d'expressions culturelles. À cet égard, un Fonds de Service Public a été créé pour répondre aux besoins des institutions non couvertes par les accords de licence, leur offrant la possibilité de faire une demande de financement à destination de leurs programmes et productions, tant que les objectifs de service public (originalité, pertinence et qualité) sont atteints.

De plus, les défis liés aux technologies numériques ont été relevés. En effet, les transformations à travers lesquelles les contenus culturels sont créés, produits, distribués et consommés à l'ère numérique impliquent que les sites d’actualité puissent recevoir le même niveau de soutien que les médias traditionnels. La révision de la Loi de soutien aux médias, entrée en vigueur en 2014, prévoit donc que les médias sur Internet soient désormais éligibles à des dispositifs de financement sécurisés. Sur la base de critères sélectifs, un soutien est accordé aux médias pour la production de contenu éditorial et pour la création de nouveaux médias. Une protection contre les immixtions arbitraires est également garantie par un conseil indépendant.

La création d'une base législative complète de soutien à la liberté et la diversité des médias, répondant aux besoins de tous les groupes sociaux illustre l'engagement du Danemark à mettre en œuvre l'objectif 1 de la Convention et à soutenir des systèmes de gouvernance de la culture durables ainsi que l’ODD 15, qui garantit l’accès public à l'information et protège les libertés fondamentales (Cible 16.7).

Objectifs clefs de la mesure:

As stated in the Danish QPR of 2012, media policy is regarded as an integral part of Danish cultural policy due to the societal significance of the mass media for the development of Danish culture and political debate. A media policy agreement (“mediepolitisk aftale”) between the government and one or more parties in the Parliament, usually spanning four years, form the basis for legislation in the area of radio, television and public service.Grants for media includes for example:

  • printed and internet based news media (see elaboration of the new Media Support Act in sec. 1.4.1),
  • non-commercial local radio and television (i.e. to civil society), including support for training/education based on statutory objective criteria. The schemes are administered by an independent board, the Radio and Television Board.
  • distribution of periodic magazines and journals, primarily union journals through the Magazine Fund (“Bladpuljen”), which was established in 2004 with the purpose of promoting democratic debate as well as cultural and societal enlightenment.

A cornerstone of the media policy is the notion of public service, which seeks to address the need for a versatile and balanced range of programmes and services for all parts of the population. Therefore, public service activity in Denmark seeks to ensure that the entire Danish population has access to a wide range of programmes and services via media channels such as television, radio, and the internet. The Danish public service institutions include DR, TV2 Danmark, TV2 Regions and Radio 24syv, which all help to ensure pluralism in both radio and television, national and regional, to the entire population on multiple platforms. Further, the “Public Service Pool” (“Public Service Puljen”) provides the opportunity for other instituions not covered by license fees to apply for funding for programs and productions, which meet the requirements of the public service objectives (originality, significance and quality).

Périmètre de la mesure:
Local, Regional, National
Nature de la mesure:
legislative, regulatory, financial, institutional
Principale caractéristique de la mesure:

Example: Media Support Act granting support to internet based news media

The revised Media Support Act entered into force on 1 January 2014. Media support is the collective term for the Ministry of Culture subsidies for printed news media and the written internet-based news media. The key objective of media support is to promote a comprehensive and diverse range of news of social and cultural nature aimed at strengthening the Danish democracy and the democratic debate. Based on objective criteria, media support is granted for the production of editorial content for a wide range of print media. With the new Act, internet media is also considered eligible for media support. Additionally, media support can be granted in order to establish new media. To this end, the overall Danish media support scheme serves to promote and lay the foundation for a diverse media landscape. The scheme is administered by an independent board. [...]

Résultats attendus de la mise en œuvre de la mesure:

1.1.1        DR as an example of accessing cultural diversity through public service media

DR (Danish Broadcasting Corporation) is the biggest provider of public service in the Danish media market, and is organised as an independent public institution financed through license fees. In the cultural field, DR has to place a special emphasis on its role as initiator and communicator of Danish art and culture and the Danish cultural heritage; enrich the cultural life in Denmark with original contents; place a special emphasis on the Danish language and actively contribute to preserving and developing the Danish language so the listeners, viewers and users experience accurate and intelligible Danish in DR’s activities. Further, DR has an obligation to offer a broad coverage of the Danish society as well as of the societies of Greenland and the Faroe Islands, and to reflect the diversity of culture, philosophies of life and living conditions in the different parts of Denmark. On TV, cultural contents is a constituent element in a number of regular programs on the main channel DR1, for instance in the News and in the daily journalistic current events program “Aftenshowet”. The downright culture programs are primarily broadcasted on DR’s specialized channels, DR2 and DRK, which encompasses different approaches to culture and both provide insight and create debate about the arts and music. While DR3, a specialized channel for younger audiences, has a strong profile on music. Examples of main TV initiatives in 2015 includes the second season of the successful drama series “Arvingerne” (The Legacy” and the competition “Danmarks nye julesang” (‘Denmark’s new Christmas Carol’), where amateur and professional songwriters composed approximately 500 new Christmas songs. On the radio, DR’s portfolio of FM and digital radio channels ensure a wide communication of culture and music contents within all genres.

Ressources financières allouées à la mise en œuvre de la mesure:

[...] In the musical field, DR is also involved in the creation and promotion of music through its ensembles. These ensembles consist of the orchestras: DR Symfoniorkesteret, DR Big Bandet, and the choirs: DR Koncertkoret, DR VokalEnsemblet and DR Pigekoret. Besides, DR Musikariet offers a number of activities in the musical field that are especially directed at children and young people. In 2015, more than 55.000 children participated in approximately 80 activities, either in the DR Concert Hall or in schools and venues around the country.

ODD
Objectif(s) de la Convention 2005 de l'UNESCO
Domaine(s) culturel(s)
Cinéma/Arts audiovisuels
Arts numériques
Edition
Chaîne de valeur culturelle
Création
Production
Distribution
Participation