Government Institutions and Other Government Agencies Playing a Direct Role in Planning and Implementing Sustainable Cultural Development

Ministry of Education and Culture
Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy/Tourism and Creative Economy Agency
Coordinating Ministry for Human Development and Cultural Affairs
Local government offices for culture
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The following are government institutions and other government agencies which have been established to play a direct role in planning and implementing sustainable cultural development in Indonesia. Some of the main policies underlying the establishment of these institutions and working groups are:
1. Presidential Regulation 82 of 2019 on the Ministry of Education and Culture;
2. Presidential Regulation 96 of 2019 on the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy;
3. Presidential Regulation 97 of 2019 on the Tourism and Creative Economy Agency; and
4. Presidential Regulation 9 of 2015 on the Coordinating Ministry for Human Development and Cultural Affairs.

The Directorate General of Culture holds the main authority related to culture within the Ministry of Education and Culture. This Directorate General consists of five Directorates, namely (1) Directorate of Religious Belief in Almighty God and Indigenous Peoples, (2) Directorate of Film, Music and New Media, (3) Directorate of Cultural Protection, (4) Directorate of Cultural Development and Utilization, and (5) Directorate of Human Resources and Cultural Institutions Empowerment. This new organizational structure is in line with the implementation of the Advancement of Culture Law (see Goal 1, Specific Policies that Regulate the Cultural and Creative Economy Sector) which focus on the four pillars approach for the holistic cultural management, namely the protection, development, utilization, and empowerment of 10 cultural advancement objects (i.e. oral traditions, manuscripts, customs, traditional games, traditional sports, traditional knowledge, traditional technology, art, language, and rituals).

As a non-ministerial government agency, the Creative Economy Agency (Bekraf) was established in 2015 as part of government's effort to advance the development through art, architecture, books, technological innovation, animation, and all forms deriving from creative ideas of human thought. This agency had a vision of building Indonesia into one of the world's economic forces in the creative economy in 2030. To achieve this vision, Bekraf designed major missions that are in line with cultural integration in sustainable development, especially in its efforts to encourage innovation in the creative field that has added value and competitiveness in the international world as well as building awareness and appreciation of intellectual property rights, including legal protection of copyright.

Bekraf also stipulated that there are 16 sub-sectors of the creative industries as their focus for management and development. Each deputy then translated the vision and mission above through various excellent programs that could be implemented in the context of the 16 sub-sectors. The formation of Bekraf showed government's optimism that the creative economy will definitely become the backbone of the national economy. It was the beginning of a new milestone in Indonesia's creative economy.

Through the Presidential Regulation 97 of 2019 on the Tourism and Creative Economy Agency, Bekraf was transformed into Baparekraf (the Tourism and Creative Economy Agency) under the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. This agency has the responsibility to support the President in formulating, establishing, coordinating and synchronizing creative economic policies in the fields of: architecture, interior design, visual communication design, product design, fashion, film - animation - video, photography, crafts, culinary, music, publishing, advertising, performing arts, fine arts, television and radio.

The Presidential Regulation 96 of 2019 concerning the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy changes the former Ministry of Tourism in the previous Working Cabinet of 2014-2019 into the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy under the current Onward Indonesia Cabinet of 2019 - 2024. This change in function includes the formulation and adoption of policies in the fields of industry, tourism destinations, marketing development, and creative economy. It is also aimed at strengthening the national development framework to become a highly competitive nation and to realize a society that has a solid identity and cultural values

Meanwhile, the Regional Apparatus Organization that carries on the affairs of the Regional Government in the field of Culture is formed in accordance with the principles of organizational design. The formation of the Regional Apparatus is stipulated through Regional Government Regulation and based on the following considerations: efficiency, effectiveness, division of main duties and functions, scope of control, clear working procedures, flexibility, and the intensity of government affairs under the regional authority, as well as regional characteristic, potential and requirements.

The formation of the Regional Apparatus is mainly based on the Government Affairs that are under the regional authority which consists of Obligatory Government Affairs and Preferred Government Affairs. Government Affairs should be divided into Government Affairs that are related to basic services and Government Affairs that are not related to basic services. Formation of Regional Apparatuses takes into account the following factors: area size, population, financial capacity of the region, and the amount of workload of each Government Affairs under the authority of the region which must be implemented by each region through their regional apparatuses.

Regional Apparatuses that carry out the task in the field of culture are, among others, the Culture Office and/or the Tourism Office. The main tasks and functions of the Office of Tourism and/or the Office of Culture are to carry out regional tourism and cultural affairs.

To carry out these basic tasks, the Tourism and Culture Office of Jakarta Province, for example, has the duties to prepare work plans and budgets; empower the local community in the fields of tourism and culture; provide, administer, utilize, and maintain tourism and cultural infrastructure and facilities; and provide technical support to the community and regional authorities.

In general, the establishment of government institutions and other government working groups that play a direct role in planning and implementing sustainable cultural development in Indonesia contributes to the realization of the following National Strategy for Culture (see Goal 1, Main Policies and Measures that Contain Strategies and Frameworks for the Development of an Integrated Cultural and Creative Economy Sector):
1. Provide space for the diversity of cultural expressions and encourage cultural interaction to strengthen the inclusiveness of culture (Agenda 1);
2. Protect and develop values, expressions, and practices of traditional culture to enrich national culture (Agenda 2);
3. Develop and utilize cultural resources to strengthen the position of Indonesia internationally (Agenda 3);
4. Utilize advancement of culture objects to improve people welfare (Agenda 4);
5. Advancement of culture that protects the biodiversity and strengthens the ecosystems (Agenda 5);
6. Institutional reform and cultural budgeting to support the advancement of culture agenda (Agenda 6); and
7. Strengthen the role of government as facilitator in the advancement of culture (Agenda 7).

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Objectif(s) de la Convention 2005 de l'UNESCO
Domaines culturels